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  • Culture
    • A01
      • A culture is the beliefs and customs of a social group that bind together a society.
      • A distinguishing feature of many western cultures is we live in predominantly urban settings with relatively easy geographical and social mobility.
      • We voluntarily interact with a large number of different people and western cultures appear to be characterised by a high degree of choice in romantic partners with a greater 'pool' of potential relationships.
        • Non-western cultures have fewer urban centres and less social mobility so less likely to choose whom they interact with.
      • Western cultures have more importance on rights and freedom of the individual and individual happiness is seen as important. But, in non-western cultures the group is not important and they are taught to be inter-dependent.
        • The individual's attitudes are highly regarded than group interests or goals. Individualist can choose their formation of their relationship but collectivists may have to consider family.
      • Relationships based on love may not produce more compatible partners. Parents may be in a better position to judge compatibility in the long-run as young people may be blinded by love and overlook personal incompatibilities that will become apparent later.
        • However, freedom of choice promotes martial stability.
      • Cultures promote a strong desire for romantic relationships, it can greatly influence feelings of romantic loneliness.
    • A02
      • Voluntary relationships may not always be better.
        • Myres studied individuals living in India in arranged marriages and found no difference in marital sanctification than compared to individuals in non-arranged marriages.
          • Arranged marriages make sense as they seem to work, divorce rates are very low which suggests that they work because most of the time, they fall in love so they are just as good.
      • However, in rapidly developing countries such as china, there has been an increase in love matches. In china, parents dominate the process of partner choosing but it has declined from 70% to less than 10%.
        • A study found that women who had married for love felt better about their marriages than women who had arranged. This suggests that those cultures are becoming western and forming relationships based on love.
      • Levine
        • investigated love as a basis for marriage. In 11 countries, Ps were asked whether they would marry someone they didn't love. 14% in western cultures said they would whereas, 24% in non-western cultures said they would. The extent of family is more important and love is a luxary.
      • A researcher suggested young adults in western cultures experience greater degree of loneliness due to high desire of love compared to western cultures. High levels of romantic loneliness were found in western cultures than non-western which suggests a long emphasis of romantic of relationships in western cultures which amplifies feelings of loneliness.
      • There is a cultural bias in how romantic relationships are represented. Psychologists believe influence of US romance films are culturally biased of romance to young people as people may see romantic relationships in films and see them as normal which is a biased view.
        • In real life, this doesn't occur, it takes years to develop.
      • There may be problems with the methodology with cultural differences. If research is developed in one culture then interpreted into another it becomes in imposetic. Therefore, conclusions from a cross-cultural study such as 'love' measures are developed in western cultures but not in non-western.


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