Cultural Variations in Attachment

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  • Created by: Kate
  • Created on: 22-04-13 21:05
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  • Cultural Variations in Attachment
    • Bowlby's Theory
      • Attachment is innate
        • Should be the same everywhere
      • Secure attachments should be the best and most common form of attachment
    • Van Ijzendoorn & Kroonenberg
      • Meta analysis of 32 studies that used Strange Situation. 8 different conuntries
        • Secure attachment was most common
        • Insecure avoidant was most popular in Western Cultures
          • Cross cultural similarities  Common reaction to 'strange situation'
            • Insecure Resistant was most popular in non-Western cultures
        • Insecure Resistant was most popular in non-Western cultures
        • Cross cultural similarities  Common reaction to 'strange situation'
          • Different upbringing in different cultures.
            • Different attachments in different cultures.
        • Strange situation might not be appropriate to study cross-culture attachment.
          • Different attachments in different cultures.
        • Support that attachment is an innate and biological process.
          • Bowlby's Theory
            • Attachment is innate
              • Should be the same everywhere
            • Secure attachments should be the best and most common form of attachment
      • Ainsworth's Uganda study
        • Similarity in attachment behaviour
        • Infants used their mothers as secure bases
        • Securely attached infants showed greater sensitivity
          • Led to increased competence and independence
        • Mothers who were more sensitive to infants tended to have securely attached children
      • Tronick et al.
        • Efe from Zaire
          • Extended family groups
          • Infants breastfed by different women
            • At 6 months showed primary attachment
      • Fox
        • Israeli Kibbutzim
          • Communual  Childrens home, looked after by nurses
            • Strange situation used to test attachment type using nurses (metaplot) or mother.
              • Equally attached to each caregiver, except on reunion when infant showed more attachmet to mother.
                • Shows there is still one primary attachment, wven though care is shared.
      • Grossman & Grossman
        • German infants are generally classified to be insecure than securely attached
          • Maybe due to different child rearing.
            • German culture: keeping interpersonal distance beterrn parent and children
              • Strange situation: no prozimity-seeking behaviours= insecurely attached
      • Takahashi
        • Strange situation. 60 middle class Japanese infants and mothers
          • Similar secure attachment % as Ainsworths study in US
            • No insecure avoidant. 32% insecure-resistant
          • Very distressed when left alone, 90% of tests had to be stopped.
          • Different childcare practices.
            • Infants rarely away from mother.
              • Insecurely attached.
      • Conclusion
        • Strongest attachments formed with mother
        • Different patterns of attachment can be related to culture

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