Cultural Revival

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  • Cultural Revival and the Rise of Revolutionary Nationalism
    • The Gaelic Athletic Association
      • Set up by Irish civil servant Michael Cusack
      • Promoted and set rules for Irish sports, such as hurling
      • Had strong links with the Catholic Church, the Irish Party of Parnell and the Irish National Brotherhood
      • Some rules consisted of banning participation in 'foreign' (ie English) sport and banning the Royal Irish Constabulary playing
    • The Gaelic League
      • Founded in 1893 by Eoin MacNeill and led by Douglas Hyde
      • Promoted the use of Irish language
      • In 1891, only 66,000 out of 4.7 million spoke Irish
      • Set up a newspaper 'Am Claidheamh Soluis' in 1899 that pushed for the use of Irish in schools
      • Circulated 100,000 leaflets in 1900-01 spreading its message
      • 1906- 75,000 members
      • had disagreements with the Irish Party, especially that Irish should be made a compulsory entry requirement of the new National Uni
    • Sinn Fein
      • Founded in 1905 by Arthur Griffith
      • He was a separatist (didn't believe in co-operating with the British government) but DID support the British monarchy
        • Left the IRB in 1910 as he didn't believe in violence
      • Also believed that separatist revival should involve all strands of Irish society not just Catholics
      • The 1913 Dublin lock-out
        • Industrial dispute broke out and the Employer's Federation (led by William Martin Murphy) locked out  members of the Irish Transport and General Workers' Union
          • Workers were led by James Connolly
          • Hunger and starvation hit many families and it was even suggested by Larkin that the children of worker's families should be sent to England but this was condemned by the Catholic Church
          • A lock-out is when employers stop workers going to work until they agree to stop causing trouble
          • Connolly also set up the Citizen's Army to defend workers against attacks, this meant there was yet another military force in Dublin


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