Culture Mindap

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  • Cultural differences in relationships.
    • Definition - Culture can be defined as the collective programming of the mind, which distinguishes members of one group from another.(Hofstede 1993)
      • This implies that - ideas and behaviours will differ cross-culturally.
        • Leading to the assumption that relationships will also differ; as a result of the different 'collective programming of the mind'.
          • Moghaddam et al. (1993) - believed western cultures tend to have relationships that are individualistic, voluntary and temporary, Non-western cultures tend to have collectivist, involuntary and permanent relationships.
            • Refuted by Huang (2005) - Moghaddam's views may be dated. Huang explains the rising divorce rate in Asian countries.
              • Rising Divorce rate resultant of Rapid urbanisation, changing cultural norms, enhanced choice through education and employment, loosening control over marriage, increased leniency in divorce (importnace of romantic love)  and the growth of indivualism
                • Refutes differneces between western/non western relationships. Rasies question of when a culture has become western. Can the collective programming of the mind change, in a whole population over time?
                  • As countries delevelop, more educational/job opportunities arise, more opportunity for relationships to form (social demographic factors). It may be that there was a difference in e/w'ern relationships, however differences are minimalised as countries develop and become westernised. The clear differences become blurred.
            • Supported by Levine et al. (1995)
              • Levine found that only in traditional collctivist cultures such as Thailand, India and Pakistan students were willing to marry someone they didnt love.
                • This may be due to traditional collectivist views and parental influence.
                  • Supports view that differences are evident. However it may also be dated, in comparison to Huang's more recent study.
                  • Marriage to become finalcially stable.
                  • More tradition/ religion.


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