Cultural Defence and Religion and the 'Clash of Civilisations.'

  • Created by: Anjalee
  • Created on: 04-01-13 13:04
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  • Cultural Defence
    • Defending the community against a threat often gives religion a prominent role in religion. Poland and Iran are two examples which illustrate how religion can be used in defence of national identity in the face of political domination.
      • Poland
        • Poland was under communist rule by the Soviet Union. Although the church did not always challenge the communist rule openly, it served as a popular rallying point for opposition to the Soviet Union and the Polish communist party.
        • It lent its active support to the Solidarity free trade union movement in the 1980's that brought about the fall of communism. The church regained a central role and has significant influence on Polish politics since,
      • Iran
        • Modernisation meant that in Iran, the gap between the rich and poor grew. Cleric Ayatollah Khomeini, promised the return to traditional religious values. He declared an Islamic republic, and was appointed Iran's political and religious leader.   
        • Haynes argues that the Iranian Revolution was not typical of politics in the Middle East. In some other countries, such as Saudi Arabia, the religious leadership is closely tied to the local elite.
  • Religion and the 'clash of civilisations'
    • In recent years, religion has been at the centre of a number of global conflicts for example  9/11 attacks. Shared religion creates social cohesion but can also cause conflict. Religious differences create an ‘us and them’ relationship. 
    • While Western attitudes have become more liberal, in the Muslim world they remain traditional. There is no global agreement about self-expression values, which is seen to constitute the real clash between Muslim societies and the West.
    • Criticisms:
      • -Huntington stereotypes Muslims by assuming they are all interested in a ‘holy war’        -His views are likely to create conflict




A great and developed mind map on cultural defence. 

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