Cultural differences- A03

  • Created by: MollyL20
  • Created on: 10-12-20 14:56
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  • Cultural differences- A03
    • Larger samples
      • A strength of combining the results of attachment studies carried out in different countries is that you and up with a very large sample
      • For example, in the Ijzendoorn meta-analysis there was a total of nearly 2000 babies and their PAF.
      • This overall sample size is a strength because large samples increases internal validity by reducing the impact of anomalous results caused by bad methodology and very unusual participants
    • Samples tend to be unrepresentive of culture
      • The meta-analysis claimed to study cultural variation where as the comparisons were between countries not cultures
      • Within any country there are many different child-rearing practises. One sample for example might over represent living in poverty which may affect attachment types
      • An analysis by Van Ijzendoorn and Sagi (2001) found that distributions of attachment type in Tokyo were similar to Western studies
      • Where as a more rural sample had an over representation of insecure resistant individuals
      • This mean that comparisons between countries may have little meaning; the particular cultural characteristics of the sample need to be specified
    • Method of assessment is biased
      • Cross cultural psychology includes the idea of etic and emic. Etic means cultural universals while emic means cultural uniqueness. The Strange situation was designed by American researcher based on a British theroy
      • There is a question over whether Anglo-American theories and assessments can be applied to other cultures. Trying to apply a theory or technique designed for one culture to another culture is known as imposed etic
      • An example of imposed etic may be the idea that a lack of separation anxiety and lack of pleasure on reunion indicate an insecure attachment in the strange situation
      • In Germany this behaviour might been seen as more independence than avoidance and hence not a sign of insecurity within the cultural context (Grossman and Grossman 1990)


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