Sociology cultural deprivation

  • Created by: Daisymac
  • Created on: 17-01-19 18:33
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  • Cultural deprivation
    • What?
      • Study by Centre of longitudinal studies 2007- By the age of 3 children from disadvantaged backgrounds are already up to one year behind than those from more privileged backgrounds.
      • The basic cultural equipment  needed to do well at school
    • Language
      • Hubbs-Tait et al 2002- Found that where parents use language to challenge their child's language, cognitive performance improves
        • Feinstein 2008- found that educated parents are more likely to use language in this way
      • Feinstein also argues that educated parents were more likely to use praise, encouraging children to develop a sense of their own competence
      • Beretier and Englemann 1966 claim that the language used by the wc is deficient. They describe wc families as communicating by gestures, single words or disjointed phrases.
        • As a result, their children fail to develop the necessary language skills . They grow up incapable of abstract thinking and unable to use language to explain, describe, enquire or compare
    • Speech codes
      • Bernstein 1975 - Restricted and elaborated code
      • Restricted- WC, limited vocab, based on short unfinished sentences, speech is predictable and is context bound
      • Elaborated speech code- MC, wider vocab, longer, grammatically more complex sentences, speech more varied and communicates abstract ideas
      • Puts MC at an advantage as elaborated code used in textbooks and teachers and exams, and is taken as the correct way to speak, and is the most effective tool for analysing and reasoning
      • Early socialisation into elaborated speech code means MC children are already fluent in this code by the time they start school
    • Parents' education
      • Douglas 1964-Found WC parents placed less value on education and, as a result, gave them less encouragement and took less interest in their education
      • Feinstein 2008 argues that a parents own education was the most important factor in effecting a Childs achievement and MC parents were better at socialising their children
        • Parenting style- Educated parents' parenting style emphasises consistent discipline and high expectations of their children whilst less educated have harsh and inconsistent discipline that emphasises doing as you are told
        • Parents' educational behaviours - Educated parents are more aware of what is needed in order to assist their childs educational success.
        • Use of income- Bernstein and young 1967 found mc mothers are more likely to buy educational toys, books and activities to stimulate intellectual development.
    • Working class subculture
      • Sugarman 1970 argues that the working class subculture has 4 key elements acting as a barrier to educational success
        • Fatalism- A belief in fate and that there is nothing you can do to change your status- MC emphasise and meritocracy
        • Collectivism- Valued being part of a group more than succeeding as an individual-MC not held back by group loyalties
        • Immediate gratification- Seeking pleasure now rather than making sacrifices in order to get rewards in the future - MC deferred gratification
        • Present time orientation-  Seeing the present as more important than the future and so not having long term goals
        • These values exist as mc careers are secure and offer prospects for continuous individual advancement. This encourages ambition, long term planning and willingness to invest time in gaining qualifications
    • Evaluation
      • Keddie 1973 describes this as a victim blaming explanation and as a myth. She argues that a child cannot be deprived of its own culture, but just culturally different. They fail as the education system is dominated by mc values
      • Troyna and Williams 1986 argue that the problem is not the Childs language but the schools attitude toward it. Teachers have a speech hierarchy, with mc at top, then wc then black speech
      • Blackstone and mortimore 1994 argues wc attend less parents evenings as they have longer, less regular working hours and are also put off by the mc atmosphere


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