Cultral variation

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  • CULTRAL VARIATION
    • Van Ijzendoorn &Kroonenberg 1988
      • AIM
        • Look at the proportions of secure, insecure-avoidant and insecure-resistant attachment in a range of countries and compare the differences within the same country
      • METHOD
        • Located in 32 studies of attachment where stranger situation was used
        • Conducted in 8 counties
        • Results for 1990 children
      • FINDINGS
        • Wide variation between the proportions of attachment types in studies
        • Secure was common in all countries
        • 75% - Britain to 50% - China (secure)
        • IR- 3% in Britain and 30% in Isreal
        • IA - Most Germany and Least Japam
        • Within Countires 150% greater than those between countries
          • E.g - USA one study found that 46% securely attached compared to one as high as 90%
    • Simonella et al. 2014
      • Italy
      • AIM
        • See whether the proportions of babies of different attachment types still matches those found in previous studies
      • METHOD
        • 72 12 month olds using the strange situation
      • FINDINGS
        • 50% secure
          • Lower rate
        • 36% insecure-avoidant
    • Jin et al. 2012
      • Korea
      • AIM
        • Compare the proportions of attachment types in Korea to other studies
      • METHOD
        • Strange situation
        • 87 children
      • FINDINGS
        • Insecure and secure was similar
        • Between Insecure-resistant  and avoidant  most children was resistant and 1 was avoidant
          • Similar to Japan
            • Similar child-rearing styles
    • CONCLUSTION
      • Secure is the norm
      • Supporting Bowlby that attachment is innate
      • Culture can make a dramatic differnce
    • Grossman and Grossman 1991
      • Germany
        • Insecure rather than secure
          • Due to the way they were bought up
            • Independent
            • Do not engage in proximity seeking in strange situation
    • Takahashi 1990
      • Japan
        • No evidence of insecure-avoidant
        • High rates of insecure-resistant (32%)
        • Infants was distressed on being alone - 90% stopped at this point
          • Rarely experience separation from mothers
    • Fox 1977
      • Israeli Kibbutzim
        • Cared by a nurses in a communal home
          • Appeared equally attached to mother an nurses
            • Greater attachment to mother at reuni0n base
        • Rarely saw strangers - caused high levels of anxiety
    • A03
      • Large samples
        • Increase internal validity by reducing the amount of anomalous resuslts
      • Unrepresentative of culture
        • compared between countries not culture
          • There is cultures in countires
      • Method of assessment od biased
        • Imposed etic

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