Crusader States Defence

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  • Crusader States
    • To what extent was the defensive situation transformed between the 1st and 2nd Crusades?
      • Seaports
        • Help from European Navies
          • 1124- Tyre capitulated after attack from Venetian fleet
          • 1104- King Sigurd's Norwegian fleet took Beirut + Salon
        • 1104- Acre port captured
          • Genoese quarter - different rights and privileges
            • Help from European Navies
              • 1124- Tyre capitulated after attack from Venetian fleet
              • 1104- King Sigurd's Norwegian fleet took Beirut + Salon
          • Pilgrim service industry - food, rest, guidance
        • 10+ ports captured
        • Controlled trade, wealth for defence of CS
          • Tyre - royal protection to Egyptian traders Abu Ibn Izz ad-Din
        • Safely harbour ally ships, prevent Egyptian landing
      • Declining Relationship with Byzantium Empire
        • Poor relationship
          • Competition with Antioch
        • Competition with Antioch
      • Castles
        • Stone towers for acquisition of territory
          • Established control over newly-captured territory
        • Castles centre of rural land, neighbouring population paid rent/tax
        • Some for defence
          • Gaston Casle controlled Belen Pass in Appanus Mountains
      • Strengthening of Muslim Response
        • Zengi
          • 1144-Captured Edessa, slew 15000, damaged relics
        • Nur ad-Din
          • 1146-allied with Seljuk Sultan of Rum against Antioch
          • Massacred 30000 Edessans trying to take back city
    • Military Orders
      • 1130s - Templars established
        • Built / garrisoned castles
      • Many Europeans preferred M.O. donations to Crusading
      • Opportunity to join Church order/honour God without Monk's quiet service
      • Violent action allowed in defence of Chuch
        • Opportunity to use/test Chivalric skills

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