Crude Oil and Fuels - C1 Unit 4

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  • Crude Oil and Fuels
    • Fuels from crude oil
      • Crude oil contains compounds different boiling points
        • Burn under different conditions
        • Distillation separates a mixture of liquids
          • Liquids that boil within different temp. ranges are called fractions
        • Larger the molecule, the higher the boiling point
      • Most compounds in crude oil made of hydrocarbons
        • Most of these alkanes
          • With formula CnH(2n+2)
          • Contains as many hydrogen atoms as possible so saturated
    • Fractional Distillation
      • Crude oil separated using fractional disitllation
      • Vapourised in a fractionating column
        • Hot at bottom, cooler at top
          • Hydrocarbon condenses to liquid when at level of boiling point
      • Fractions with low boiling points have low viscosity
        • Runny
        • flammable so ignite easily
          • Make good fuels
    • Burning Fuels
      • When hydrocarbons burned completely (oxidised) they make CO2 and water
      • When burned with limited air supply, may make carbon monoxide
        • incomplete combustion
      • Most fossil fuels burn to make sulfur dioxide
        • This causes acid rain
      • When fuels burned at high temperatures, oxygen and nitrogen may combine to make nitrogen oxides
        • This causes acid rain
    • Cleaner Fuels
      • Carbon dioxide is a green house gas - global warming
        • Filters are used in exhaust pipes and power stations to prevent these harmful substances entering the atmosphere
      • Carbon monoxide is very poisonous
        • Filters are used in exhaust pipes and power stations to prevent these harmful substances entering the atmosphere
      • Sulphur can be removed from fuel so less sulfur dioxide when burned
    • Alternative Fuels
      • Biofuels

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