Crisis and Reform 1921

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  • Crisis and Reform (1921)
    • Crises 1921
      • Rebellion among peasants, workers' strikes - extent of opposition to government
    • Popular Unrest
      • Civil War ruined Russia's economy; droughts in 1920 &1921
      • Aleksandr Antonov - peasant rebellion against communist grain requisitioning and Cheka brutality
        • 50,000 anti communist fighters by Jan 1921
      • March 1921- Peasant attacks on government grain stores
      • Early 1921- strikes against policies in major cities
      • Sailors at Konstadt horrified by suppression so rebelled and demanded following reforms:
        • Free and fair elections
        • Release of Mensheviks, SR's, anarchist political prisoners
        • Restoration of freedom of speech and press
        • Abolition of Cheka
        • End to War Communism
      • Mid March - Red Army crushed Konstradt uprising
        • May - suppressed rebellion by sending 100,000 to labour camps
    • One-Party State
      • During Civil War - opposition parties persecuted by Cheka
        • Ones who survived played a key role in strikes of early 1921
      • Feb 1921 - Cheka to destroy opposition political parties
      • End of Feb 1921- All Mensheviks in Petrograd
      • Similar steps towards SR's - 22 leading put on trial, imprisoned or sent to exile
      • 1921 & 1922 - consolidated dominance of Russia by crushing opposition
    • The 1921 Party Congress
      • Workers and peasants dissatisfied with regime
      • Lenin pushed through reforms in 1921 Party Congress
        • New Economic Policy - liberalised economy
      • Opposition: Workers' Opposition, Democratic Centralists
      • Resolution: 'On Party Unity'
      • Ban on factions decisions

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