Criminological Perspectives Lecture 4 --> Postcolonial Criminology and Southern Theory

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  • Postcolonial Criminology and Southern Theory
    • Colonialism
      • 19th C - establishment of white settler communities in foreign lands
        • superimposed colonial borders on local ethnic, tribal and other boundaries
        • enslaved and exploited labour - extracted raw materials from lands
      • Carrington, 2016
        • early crim used Hobbes's theories of social war as an excuse to take over land
        • rarely inquired about how conditions were bought about in countries
          • eg. how states were made, how they rued, reach of their power
          • instead only focused on minor delinquencies that troubled the peace of liberal states and focused on refining instruments for policing etc
        • punishment was used as a way of displaying colonial power
          • penal transportation - founding of convict colonies (Australia)
        • 20th C wave of decolonisation - some powers still tried to hold onto the countries - this lead to many conflicts
          • Rwandan genocide
          • some of these is some forms today: over representation in the CJS, extreme levels of poverty etc
        • Loïc Wacquant said there is a staright line between the practice of slavery and mass incarceration in America today
        • argues that we think about the global South in terms of colonialism which duplicates the history of European colonialism
      • Frantz Fanon, 1925-1961
        • “it is the settler (colonizer) who has brought the native (colonized) into existence and who perpetuates his existence.”
          • illustrates the 'brainwashing' of natives - internalise hierarchies established by positivist thinking
          • “literal colonization of their minds”
        • Colonization meant that the violence of the colonized toward the colonizer is both “ethical and transformative for the colonized person”
    • Orientalism
      • def: describes the the West frames and shapes the understanding of the orient
      • Edward Said, 1935-2003
        • orientalism based on the misconception that the 'unknowing 'other' requires the guidance and advice of 'us' to find/accept its proper place in the world'
        • perceptions / representations of the orient are framed as a negative alternative pole to the oxidant
        • the 'knowledge' that the West has legitimate power over the East
        • orientalism oversees the stereotyping of people in the East
        • the orient appears to have:
          • an absence of revolutionary change
          • no middle class
          • failure of participatory democracy
          • a lack of autonomous cities
          • a lack of instrumental rationality
        • Whilst the Occident is seen to develop historically in terms of various stages of modernization, the unhistorical and stationary Orient exists outside of history
    • Postcolonial Criminology
      • Galls-Peter Projection map shows a 'better' account of what the world map should look like - larger Africa etc
        • Unconsciously, if we think that a continent is much smaller than it is, this may have lead to a diminishing of its importance historically
      • there are more people in Japan, bits of China, Nepal, Indonesia, Philippines, Korea etc than there are in other locations around the world
        • if there are more people, why are they not the centre of interest?
      • Southern Theory
        • ‘Northern Theory’ makes universal claims with an emphasis upon metropolitan living
        • Northern Theory has 4 core tendencies
          • 1 - the claim of universality (metropolitan bias)
          • 2. reading from the centre, dismissive of other theories
          • 3. theories produced by colonized people are dismissed as irrelevant to core theory and metro thinking
          • 4. erases lived experience of the majority of the world's pop
        • ‘Students from all over the world come to the USA and the United Kingdom to learn criminology, and bring back Western theories and approaches to their own countries’ (Liu, 2017)


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