Criminological Perspectives Lecture 2 --> Re-framing theories of criminal behaviour: 20th and 21st century theories

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  • Re-framing theories of criminal behaviour: 20th and 21st century theories
    • 19thC City Life
      • Tonnies (1887)
        • Gemeinschaft - 'community', close knit community
        • Gesellschaft - 'society' - lack of close bonds
      • Durkheim (1893)
        • Collapse of social solidarity following urban growth
        • Relaxtaion of social bonds leading to extreme individualisation
      • Simmel (1903)
        • Intellectualistic response - people turn inwards due to bombarded senses in a busy city
    • Chicago School
      • Financial Loop (1)
      • Zone in Transition (2)
      • Working Men (3)
      • Residential (4)
      • Commuter (5)
    • New Criminology
      • Taylor, Walton and Young (1973)
      • to understand the offender(‘s) act we first need to look at the wider macro structures that may have impacted them (eg. policy, the justice system, economic impacts) and then the meso impacts (eg. media)
      • Need to then look at how the act has impacted society (social bonds, media, ad gov policy etc)
      • Misses out possible biological factors
    • Emerging Perspectives (70s)
      • Left Realists
        • Square of victim - state, society, offender, victim
        • Structural inequality and marginalization
      • Right Realists
        • Better living conditions and welfare had not stopped crime
        • Crime =‘the collapse of the civic socialization of young people, community failure and family breakdown’
      • Feminist Criminology
        • Critique of 'malestream' criminology
        • Double deviance / violence against women
        • role of mascultinies in crime
    • The Seductions of Crime (Katz, 1988)
      • emotional side of crime and criminality
      • draws attention to positive stimuli of the crime, not bc of background factors
    • Disgust
      • Things that are ‘out of place’ are disgusting
      • Eg a plaster on a wound = fine, a plaster in a pool = disgust
      • Mary Douglas - Purity and Danger


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