Crime and Deviance

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  • Created on: 17-01-14 18:16
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  • Crime and Deviance
    • Gender
      • Pollak- Chivalry thesis. CJS mainly men, protective to women, respect them
      • Messerschmidt- Masculinity is achieved, WC & EM criminal to show masculinity
      • Heidensohn- Patriarchal control- home, work, public
      • Adler- Liberation thesis, more opp for women to commit crime
      • Box- seld report studies, serious offences are treated the same
      • Parsons- Sex role theory, primary socialisation
      • Carlen- judge women and criminals, mothers and wives, 'double failure'
      • Walklate- rape cases, victim must show her respectability
      • AK Cohen- absence of male in family, boys turn to gangs for statue through crime
      • Graham et al- women 1/3 less likely to be jailed, stats and double what studies show
    • Ethnicity
      • Phillips and Bowling- oppressive policing, EM- over policed
      • Hood- Black men 5% more to be jailed, EM have longer sentences,
      • Stephen Lawrence- MacPherson report, police institutionally racist
      • Lea & Young- 90% of crime public reports, so police aren't racist
      • Gilroy- 'myth of black criminality'. black criminality, racist stereotypes
      • Hall et al- Policing the crisis- black muggers as scapegoat
      • Bourgois- discrimination excludes EM from economic opp. turn to criminal sc
    • Media
      • Cohen & Young- neews is social construct, its manufactured
      • Mandel- Fictional info, eg. 25% of TV is crime shows
      • S. Cohen- Folk devils, moral panics, D A spiral
      • Jewkes- new media= new crimes eg piracy
      • Wall- cyber crime: trespass, deception, porn, violence
    • Suicide
      • Durkheim- based on social facts, integration and regulation
      • Taylor- Coroners choose suicides, not valid
      • Atkinson- Coroners common sense theory, circumstantial
      • Douglas- socially constructed stats, look at death from victim
    • Green, state & Globalisation
      • State
        • Kelman & Hamilton- Crimes of obedience, 3 features, authorisation, routinisation, dehumanisation
        • McLaughlin- 4 types of state crime, political, security, economic, social/cultural crime
      • Green
        • define- looks at the harm, not the legality of the act. GC is transgressive, looks at new issurs
        • Beck- late modern society has increased productivity & technology, creating 'manufactured risks' - 'global risk society'
        • South- primary, direct destructioneg deforestation. Secondary, the laws are ignored eg disposal of waste
      • Globalisation
        • Michalowski & Kramer- TNC go to countries with no pollution and safety laws. sell unsafe products to the workers
        • Taylor- Globalization means TNC and move countries, looking for profit, breaks social cohesion
        • Glenny- 'Mcmafia', well connected citizens brought items (oil, gas) and sold them on world market
        • Castells-global crime economy, worth £1 trillion per annum, trafficking, smuggling, cyber, green, terrorism,drug
        • Hobbs & dunningham-'Glocal' crime. locally based crime, but with global connections, eg drugs
    • Prevention, punishment & victims
      • Victim
        • Hans Von Hentig- found 13 X'isticts, the reason they were victims
        • Wolfgang- 588 homicides, 26% were victim triggerred
        • Christie- label of victim is 'socially constructed', media has stereotypes- weak, innocent, young.
        • Define- Those who have suffered harm  (mental, physical) through acts that break the laws
        • Amir- 1 in 5 rape cases, victim precipitated. ignores crime against environment.
      • Punishments
        • Durkheim-to up hold social solidarity. Retributive, traditional,  restitutive, modern, compensation.
        • Justification?- Deterrence, rehabilitation, incapaition, retribution
        • Marxism- see punishment as RSA, based on economic base. 'pay' by 'doing time'
        • Changes in prision- pre-industrial prision was holding place, now is seen as worse form of punishment.
        • S. Cohen- increase in community control, ASBO's curfews, tagging.
        • Foucault- sovereign power (body) and disciplinary power (mind) The panoptican: surveillance becomes self-surveillance
      • Prevention
        • The Perry pre-school project- 3&4 age, disadvantaged kids, and intellectual project. shown to have fewer arrests for violence & drugs.
        • Clarke- 'target hardening', rational choice theory, crime is opportunistic.
        • Wilson & Kelling- Broken window theory. environmental improvement & zero tolerance halts neighbourhood decline.
        • Displacement- SCP won't reduce crime, but displace it. Spatical, target, temporal, tactical, function. ignores WCC, CCTV is biased, criminals are under influence.
      • Incarceration
        • Transcarceration- individuals moving between prision-like institutions. blur between CJS & welfare system
        • Garland- USA, 3% of pop is involved in crime, now have tough on crime idea, so rises prision pop. 3535:462, black:white.
        • Simon- Americas 'war on drugs' have lead to mass incarceration, endless supply of offenders.
        • Downes- USA imprisions 30-40% of the unemployed, makes capitalism look good, ideological function?
    • Theory- F,M
      • Marxists
        • (N) Hall- 'policing the crisis', young black men rebelled as reaction to police labeling
        • (N) Taylor et al- 'fully social theory', voluntaristic view, its a choice, not political motive.
        • Function of crime- the laws give capitalism a 'caring face', creates false class consciousness.
        • Reiman- crimes of powerful are less likely to be seen as offences, focus on WC crime
        • Criminogenic capitalism- nature of society means crime is inevitable. poverty, increase in commodity, alienation.
        • Chambliss- Laws protect private property, so protect the ruling class, and reject laws that harm their intrests
      • Functionalists
        • Durkheim- Crime is inevitable, 2 functions, boundary maintenance & adaptation and change. division of labour, causes anomie
        • AK Cohen- Deviance indicates a problem with an institution, like a warning light.
        • Davis- Deviance acts as a safety valve, eg prostitution enables men to release frustration, not by domestic violence.
        • Crit. of Durkheim- how much is enough? he explains the functions, not the reasons
    • Realists
      • Left
        • Young- too tough on crime, not the cause
        • Lea & Young- Relative dep, subcultures, marginalisation
      • Right
        • Murry- State created dependency culture
        • Clarke- Rational choice, reward> punishment
        • Wilson & Kelling- zero tolerance, target hardening
        • Wilson & Hernstein- Biological differences, DNA
    • Labelling, strain, subcultures
      • Becker- deviance is a social construction, decided by 'moral entrepreneurs'
      • S Cohen- folk devils, clash of subcultures
      • Cicourel- Stop & search based on typification- stereotypes
      • Young- Nottinghill druggies, create deviant subculture, label from police
      • Lemert- Primary & secondary deviance, master status
      • Merton- strain theory, cannot achieve main stream goals, 5 diff adaptation
      • AK Cohen- status frustration, cultural dep, crime to gain status
      • Cloward & Ohlin- diff people, diff subcultures: criminal, conflict, retreatists

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