Crime and Deviance. part 2

you may not underdtand the way in which i write notes. sorry! 

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  • Crime and Deviance.
    • Functionalist theory: Reinforces right and wrong. Subcultural theory. > Big influence on new right (right realism)  thoughts on crime. Anomie theory.
      • Durkheim >  there is 2 different sides of crime > allows society to function.
        • : society shares set values that influence our actions.
          • Positive, 1. reaffirming boundaries (media coverage). 2. changing values (gay marriage). 3. community comes together (9/11)
          • Negative: Too much crime. People freed from social control imposed by collective consciousness > own selfish interests > don't follow rules > anomie/social chaos.
        • Erickson tried to develop durkheims collective consciousness ides (boundary setting) - argues that powerful are able to impose on the majority by a process called ideological manipulation.
      • Cristisms ; ignores aspect of power in society.
      • Merton's strain theory. Explanation of blocked opportunities explain crime. shared goals and values are important (american dream).  > not everyone can reach this legitimately so they turn to crime. Changed anomie to mean a breakdown of goals and the means of achieving them.
        • Criticised Durkheims use of anomie as to vague.
      • Hirschi illustrates the  application of anomie, as well as the role of socialisation of norms and values in maintaining informal social control.
        • social control theory -
          • Robert Merton: Cultural goals of society vs legitimate means to achieve. lack of opportunity docent mean people will give up, when denied it they will find other ways to get it.
            • 5 basic responses: 1) conformity = follow rules = success 2) innovation = cheat on a test = success 3)retreatism =reject goals =dependent on drink and drugs 4) ritualism =follow the rules without thought = sight of goal lost 5) rebel;lion = reject goals = won't change
            • Too deterministic - why don't some who experience anomie commit crime?. Underestimates working class crimes.
        • Identified 4 social bonds that hold people together. 1. Attachment 2.commitment 3. involvement 4.beleif.
        • Heavily influenced by durkheims ideas. asked why DONT people commit crime > criminal activity happens when attachment to society is weakened.
    • Deliquent subcultures : COHEN > studies working class crime and delinquents gangs in low income inner city areas. if working class males do bad at school and get no good qualifications. He disagrees and says deviance is collective and not an individual response. MERTON ignores non - utilitarian crime because there is no financial reward. Says that boys suffer from status frustration.
      • Box says that this study only applies to some delinquents, the rest accept mainstream standards. Theres also no females mentioned.
    • Deliquency and opportunity >  CLOWARD AND OHLIN. links in with merton. Different social backgrounds give different opportunities.
      • 3 types of delinquent subculture: Criminal subculture = pattern of adult crime, illegitimate opportunity structure. young men learn tricks of the trade from older role models. 2. conflict no illegitimate op structure > high population and low social cohesion. young men have little opportunity > status frustration. 3. Reatretist subculture. > fail to succeed by legitimate means or crime > form reatreatist subcultures.
      • Criticism - assumption that everyone falls into one category. no females mentioned.


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