Crime during the Industrial Revolution

View mindmap
  • Crime and Punishment during the Industrial Revolution
    • Causes of Crime
      • Population growth
        • The population grew from 10 million in 1750 to 37 million in 1900
        • Increased population meant there was a higher demand for jobs, food, houses ect.
        • It was also easier for people to get away with crime due to the large crowds of people.
      • Conditions in the factories
        • Low wages for workers meant that even with a job people might not be able to afford food
        • Many people lost their jobs to new machines. This led to "Luddites"
      • Living Conditions
        • The streets were dark which meant it was easy for criminals to escape
        • People lived in extreme poverty so might've turned to crime to survive.
        • Some people lived in slum areas called Rookeries. They were often the centre of crime so police were afraid to go in.
      • Education system
        • Only the very rich got an education
        • People didn't learn the skills needed to get a job. Instead they stole to make a living.
    • Smuggling
      • Smuggling was when people bought goods into the country without paying tax
        • This meant the government had less money available
      • Products such as wine, tobacco, brandy and gin were often smuggled
        • These could then be sold cheaply on the Black Market
      • People turned to smuggling because labourers could earn double their wages by smuggling and it was fairly easy.
        • Over 70% of smugglers were labourers, 10% were farmers and the rest were butchers and carpenters.
      • Many people didn't see smuggling as a "real" crime so sometimes they would help hide smugglers from the authorities
      • Gangs of smugglers became violent.
        • Some smugglers turned to assault or even murder to avoid arrest
        • Smuggling was often the starting point for more hardened criminals eg. **** Turpin
          • **** Turpin was a famous highwayman.
            • He is famous today because a poem was written glamorising his life
            • He was caught in 173 when he was hanged for horse-theft
            • He was born in Essex in 1705
      • The punishment was harsh often death
    • Highway Robbery
      • The government was concerned because often the postal service was attacked meaning it was the government's money being stolen
      • Highwaymen were people on horseback who stopped travellers and robbed them
      • It was common on city streets or roads approaching London
      • **** Turpin was a famous highwayman.
        • He is famous today because a poem was written glamorising his life
        • He was caught in 173 when he was hanged for horse-theft
        • He was born in Essex in 1705
      • Highway robbery was on the rise during the 18th century but declined by the early 19th century
    • China
      • China was an area in Merthyr Tydfil known as the "forbidden city"
      • It was ran by criminals
        • Drunkards, thieves, drug dealers,  rogues and prostitutes were common
      • The police were too afraid to stop it
        • It was easy to get away with crime
      • The judge wasn't sympathetic to anyone who entered China
        • It was easy to get away with crime
      • Opportunities for crime in Merthyr
        • Alcohol problems
        • No street lighting
        • No police
        • Population was high
        • Drugs such as opium
        • Unemployment
    • Protests
      • Causes
        • Working class people couldn't vote so workers had no way of bring change
        • Religious hatred
        • Taxes were to high
        • There was a shortage of food due to poor harvests
        • The French Revolution showed people violent protest could bring change
      • Swing Riots
        • People were angry at low wages and high food prices
        • There was 1,500 cases of machine breaking and arson
        • The leader was fictional character "Captain Swing".
        • The members were young men and workers.
        • 19 were executed, 505 were transported, 644 were in-prisoned, 7 were fined and 1 was whipped
      • Rebecca Riots
        • Toll gates were introduced which meant farmers were charged for each trip to/from market
        • Farmers grouped together to destroy toll gates
        • Some of the rioters dressed as women
        • Violence spread and barns and workhouses were destroyed at Carmarthen
        • In 1843 a toll gate keeper was killed
        • Soldiers were sent to West Wales
        • 5 of the riot leaders were arrested and transported to Australlia
      • Luddites
        • New machinery meant workers lost their jobs or had their wages cut
        • In 1811 workers smashed up machines in Nottinghamshire
        • Between 1811 and 1813 attacks spread to Lancashire and Yorkshire
        • Thousands of soldiers were sent to stop the attacks
        • Luddites were executed and many more rioters were arrested
      • The Merthyr Rising
        • Took place in June 1831
        • It started because miners were unhappy with their wages
        • There was between 7,00 and 10,000 protesters
        • 26 people were arrested, some were sent to Australlia
        • During the protest a soldier (Donald Black) was stabbed. Dic Penderyn was sentenced to death for this. He was hung on the 13th August 1831 as a warning to others
    • Organised Crime
      • Organised crime means a group of people work together to commit crimes
      • The growth of wealth and population led to an increase of organised crime
      • In large towns criminals were often organised into gangs led by master criminals. The authorities could do little to stop this.
      • Jonathan Wild
        • Jonatthan Wild was a master criminal in London
    • Policing
      • Bow Street Runners
        • The Bow Street Runners were the first professional police force
          • They worked full time and were paid a wage
        • They were set up by John and Henry Fielding
        • They were responsible for preventing and investigating crime within a 7 mile radius of London
          • They also tackled highway robbers, organised criminals and thieves
        • They wore a red waistcoat and had a pistol, handcuffs and a staff
        • The Horse Patrol and River Police were also formed
          • The River Police monitored the ports around the Thames
          • The Horse Patrol tackled riots and highway robbery
        • When the Government grant they were given ran out, they were funded through donations
  • **** Turpin was involved in smuggling, horse-theft and house breaking before he became a highwayman

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar History resources:

See all History resources »See all Crime and punishment through time (OCR History A) resources »