Key study-Craik and Tulving 1975

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  • CRAIK AND TULVING 1975
    • AO1
      • AIM
        • To test whether words that were processed for their meaning would be better remembered than words that were processed for information about their appearance or sound.
      • PROCEDURE
        • 20 students
        • given a list of 40 1-2 syllable words
        • they were asked whether the word was in capital letters (structural) whether it rhymed with another word (phonetic) or whether it fit in a sentence or category
        • to control other factors, the word lists were rotated so each participant had a different list
        • at this point they were unaware of the study and didn't know they would be tested
        • Later, they were tested for either recall (how many words they could remember) or recognition (whether they could correctly choose the words from a list
      • FINDINGS
        • 96% of words that fit in a sentence were recognised
        • 18% of structurally processed words were recognised
      • CONCLUSION
        • the depth of processing affects how well words are rememered. Semantic processes leds to the best recall and recognition
    • AO2
      • G-only used 20 American students so it can not be generalised
      • R-easily replicated due to standardised procedure so can show reliability
      • A-has applications in revision and education
      • V-ecological validity- although the students may be use to remembering a list of words, it has not got high ecological validity as it is not an every day situation
      • E-no ethical issued, informed consent would have come from the parents. Could argue decption as they were unaware they were going to be in a study and be tested

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