Carbohydrates

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  • Carbohydrates
    • Starch
      • amylose and amylopectin
        • Amylopectin = 1,4 and branches of 1,6-glycosidic bonds of alpha glucose
          • Easily hydrolysed to release glucose monomers
        • Amylose = 1,4 glycosidic bonds of alpha glucose
      • Energy store in plants
      • Insoluble-good for storage
      • Helix is compact
    • Cellulose
      • beta glucose monomers
        • 1,4-glycosidic bonds
        • Long unbranched chains
          • Strong microfibrils
      • Cell walls of plants
      • Extremely compact and fast hydrolysis
    • Glycogen
      • Energy store in animals and fungi
      • Similar to amylopectin but with more branches and shorter
    • Functions
      • Energy storage
      • Cell signalling e.g. glycoproteins/glycolipids
      • Respiratory substrate
      • Structural factors

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