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  • Dannenberg
    • Aim:
      • To review the impact of the passing of a law requiring CYCLE HELMET wearing in CHILDREN.
    • Methodology:
      • QUASI experiment as the experimenter couldn't control the law, so the IV is naturally occurring. INDEPENDENT design.
      • Conducted when laws were passed in HOWARD COUNTY, MARYLAND, USA where children under 16 were required to wear approved safety helmets when riding bicycles.
    • Participants:
      • Children from 47 schools in Howard County. 2 CONTROL groups from MONTGOMERY county and BALTIMORE county.
      • The children were in the 4th, 7th and 9th grades and were aged between 10 and 15 years old.
      • In the control group of Montgomery county, there was already a CAMPAIGN to to promote bicycle SAFETY.
      • Overall, 7322 children were sent QUESTIONNAIRES, around 3000 were returned.
    • Procedure:
      • Questionnaires containing 4- POINT LIKERT SCALES were sent and completed by the children, but parents were asked to HELP the children, so CONSENT was gained.
      • Topics covered in the questionnaire included:
        • Bicycle USE, helmet OWNERSHIP and USE, AWARENESS of law, SOURCES of information about helmets and peer PRESSURE.
    • Findings:
      • Participants were asked about use 1 year previously and on their most RECENT bike ride.
      • HOWARD county reported USAGE INCREASED from 11.4% to 37.5%, compared with 8.4% to 12.6% in MONTGOMERY county and 6.7% to 11.1% in BALTIMORE county.
      • The YOUNGER the children, the more their bicycle helmet use INCREASED.
      • After the law was introduced, HOWARD county had the HIGHEST rates of helmet ADHERENCE in the entire of USA.
    • Conclusions:
      • Passing legislation has MORE of an effect than educational campaigns alone. Educational campaigns are not necessary at all in increasing health behaviours.


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