covalent bonding

  • Created by: will
  • Created on: 19-10-13 15:31
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  • Covalent bonding.
    • molecules are formed when two or more atoms bond together.
      • Cl2
      • CO
      • H2O
      • C2H5OH
    • Covalent bonding is the sharing of a pair of electrons, so both atoms have a full outer shells of electrons.
      • Both the positive nuclei are attracted to the shared pair of electrons through an electrostatic attraction.
    • In an electron density map showing covalent bonding you can see an area of high electron density between two atoms.
      • This provides evidence for covalent bonding because it shows the sharing of electrons.
    • Covalent bonds can be sigma bonds.
      • Hydrogen atoms have one electron in their 1S orbital
        • When two hydrogen atoms join to make a H2 molecule their orbitals overlap to make a sigma bond.
          • the orbitals overlap in a straight line. this gives the highest possible electron density between the two muclei.
            • This is known as a single covalent bond and is represented H-H
    • Covalent bonds can be Pi bonds.
      • Pi bonds are formed when two electrons in the P orbital overlap.
        • Pi bonds are less tightly bound to the nuclei than a sigma bond. this means Pi bonds are weaker and molecules containing this bond are more reactive.
          • This is known as a double bond.
            • O=C=O
    • Dative covalent bonding is where both electrons come from the same atom.


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