Covalent Bonding

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  • Covalent Bonding
    • Simple
      • Can be  polar
      • Small
      • Low boiling and melting point
        • tend to be gases at room temperature
        • except water
          • Strong intermolecularbonds
            • Hydrogen bonding (strongest)
            • Permanent dipole-permanent dipole
            • Instantaneousdipole-induced dipole (weakest)
      • Solubility
        • In polar solvents e.g. water
          • polar substances can be soluble
        • In non polar solvents e.g. hexane
          • non polar substances can be soluble
    • Giant
      • High melting point
      • High boiling point
      • insoluble
      • non-discrete
    • Three allotropes of carbon
      • Graphite
        • delocalised electrons
        • layers that can slide past each other
        • good conductor of electricity
        • good lubricant
      • Diamond
        • each carbon is joined tetrahedrally to four other carbon atoms, by strong covalent bonds
        • the very strong C-C bonds and highly symmetrical network structure make diamond the hardest naturally occuring substance.
      • Fullerenes
        • C60
        • buckyballs
    • Period 2 elements
      • N2 (g) is diatomic with a triple bond and 2 lone pairs
      • O2 (g) is diatomic with a double bond and 4 lone pairs
      • F2(g) is diatomic with a single bond and 6 lone pairs
    • Period 3 elements
      • P4 (s)
      • S8(s)
    • CO2 and SiO2
      • CO2
        • molecular structure with 3 atoms bonded in a linear arrangement,
        • weak intermolecularbonds so little energy is needed to pull the molecules about therefore low boiling/melting points
        • polar intramolecularbonds so dissolves in water easily
      • SiO2
        • Si atoms are larger than C and have more electrons so are unable to make double bonds.
        • has a giant network structure which needs a lot of energy to overcome these intramolecularbonds
        • has high melting and bioling point and doesnt dissolve in water


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