Covalent bonding

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  • Covalent bonding
    • 2 non-metals
      • A pair of shared electrons between two atoms
      • Very strong bonds between atoms
      • Both electrons in the pair are attracted to the nucleus of each atom
    • Form simple and giant molecular (lattice) structures
      • Weak intermolec. forces (simple)
        • Low melting and boiling points (simple)
      • High melting and boiling points (giant)
    • Diamond
      • Each Carbon atom forms 4 covalent bonds
      • Tetrahendral
      • Cutting bricks and concrete
    • Graphite
      • Bonded to 3 other carbon atoms
        • 1 delocalised electron per atom
          • Conducts electricity
      • Layers which can slide
      • Soft
    • Silicon dioxide
      • Rigid covalent structure
      • Each O joined to 2 silicon atoms, each silicon atom is joined to 4 O
    • Buckyballs
      • Spherical molecule
      • Each C atom bonded to 3 others
    • Doesn't conduct electricity as there is no charge
    • Usually insoluble in water
    • eg.

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