Couples

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  • Couples
    • The Domestic Division of Labour
      • March of Progress
        • Willmott & Young (1962)
          • Women were the full-time housewives and childcare
          • Men were breadwinners
          • Segretated conjical roles inn working class extended families - BETHNAL GREEN
        • Bott (1957)
          • Segregated conjical roles
          • Joint conjical roles
      • Feminism
        • Oakly (1974)
          • Women were excluded from the workforce
          • Housewives role is the primary role for women
          • No evidence from symmetry in the domestic Labour
        • Boulton (1983)
          • argues that we need to look at who is responsible for tasks now just who performs them
      • Functionalism
        • Parsons
          • Indentured two conjical roles
            • Expressive role - Female as they are the nurturer
            • Instrumental role - Male as they are traditionally the breadwinner
          • New Right agrees with parsons
          • He sees division as biologically based
            • Women are naturally suited to nurturing, men to providing
    • Impact of women working
      • The duel burden
        • the tripple shift
          • Women were required to not only carry a duel burdern
            • Emotion work, domestic labor, paid work
        • Ferri & shift (1996)
          • Women working has had little impact on the division of labor
            • 4% of fathers were primary care giver
        • Feminists argue that women in paid work has not lead to equality but simply to the duel burden of paid wok as well as domestic work
        • Morris (1990)
          • even where the wife was working and the husband unemployed
      • Same-sex couples and gender scripts
        • Radical feminists argue that heterosexual relationships are inevitably patriarchal and unequal - even when women are in paid work
          • they contrast this with same-sex relationships
        • Dunne (1999) study of 37 lesbian couples with children found a more equal division of labour
        • Hetrosexuals- were socalised into gender scripts that set out diffrent masculine and femanine roles
      • Gershuny: lagged adaption
        • Men whose wives worked full-time did more domestic work
        • This is as a result of a chance in values & role models or 'lagged adaption': couples are gradually adapting to women working full-time
        • domestic tasks are still sex-typed
          • men do D.I.Y
      • The commercialization of houseork
        • couples can now buy goods and services instead of women having to produce them at home
        • Schor (1993)
          • argue that his has lead to the death of the housewife role
    • Domestic Violence
      • Satistics
        • the British crime survey estimated that there are 6.6 million assaults per year
          • assaults are not for no reason
            • They are mainly by men against  women
        • UNDER REPORTING - Yearnshire fond that on average women would suffer 35 assaults before reporting abuse
        • UNDER RECORDING - police are often very unwilling to record, investigating or prosecute domestic violence.
      • Somestic ciolence and inequality
        • Wilkinson (1996) argues that these patterns are a result of stress
        • Groups are likely to be Victims: children& young people, the poor &lower class
      • Radical deminists
        • DOBASH & DOBASH - violence was triggered when husbands authority is challenged
        • men oppressed women, they benefit from women's unpaid domestic labour and sexual services
        • men also dominate the state and so ploice courts fail to take domestic violence seriously
        • Radical feminists see domestic violence as the result of patriarchy
    • Resources and Decision Making
      • Decision making
        • VOGLER (1994) - found that men still tend to make the major decsion
      • Professional couples and decision making
        • ECONOMIC - men have more power in decision making because they earn more - women are economically dependent and so they have less of a say
        • less important decisions like food shopping is made by the wife
        • EDGELL's (1980) study of decsion making among professional couples where both partners work full time also found inequalities
        • PATRIARCHAL SOCIALIZATION - some feminists argue that gender role socialization in patriarchal society instills the idea that men are the decision makers.
      • one reason men take greater share of resources and demand bigger say in decisions because they earn more

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