Cosmological Argument

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  • Cosmological Argument
    • Nothing can be the cause of itself
    • The universe changes
    • The world consists of contingent beings that have the possibility not to exist
    • 2 Chief claims
      • Whatever begins to exist has a cause
      • The universe began to exist
        • The universe has a cause
          • Whatever begins to exist has a cause
    • David Hume
      • He was an empiricist
        • Relied on knowledge gained only from the senses
      • Asked whether the universe had to have a beginning
      • Just because everything in our world is governed by cause-effect, that doesn't meant the universe had to have a cause
      • "If the material world rests upon a similar ideal world, this ideal world must rest upon some other; and so on, without end"
      • Suggested that maybe there wasn't one Prime Mover.
        • Could there be more serving as a committee?
      • Challenges cause-effect saying that it might be the case that what we perceive as causation is simply statistical conjunction
        • Linking together similar cases with the same statistics
        • The whole purpose of an action is perceived to have a specific cause due to past experiences and expectations that we have
      • Questions why the Prime mover has to be a christian God
        • Based on past experiences, wouldn't it be more logical to suggest a world created by male and female gods who are born and who will die?
    • Thomas Aquinas
      • Is it obvious that there is a God?
        • Beyond all direct human experience
        • Can it be made obvious?
          • The universe is God's creation
            • Evidence of God's creation can be found using intellect and reason
      • 5 a posteriori proofs for the existence of God
      • 5 Ways
        • 1) Motion
          • Kalam argument
          • Everything in the world is moving or changing
          • Nothing can move or change by itself
          • There cannot be an infinite regress of things changing other things
          • Therefore there must be a prime mover
            • This is called God
        • Cosmological argument is based on the first three of Aquinas' ways
        • 2) Causation
          • Everything in the world has a cause
          • Nothing is the cause of itself
          • There cannot be an infinite regress of causes
          • Therefore there has to be a first cause to start the chain of causes
            • This first cause we call God
        • 3) Contingency
          • Everything is the world is contingent
            • It can either exist or not exist
          • If things can not exist, there must have been a time when they did not exist
          • If everything in the world can not exist, there must have been a time when nothing existed
          • Things exist now so there must be something on which we all depend which brought us  into existence
            • This necessary being we call God
          • Focused on contingency
    • Fredrick Copleston
      • Focused on contingency
      • There are things in this world that are contingent
        • They might not have existed
      • All things in the world are contingent
        • Everything depends on something else for its existence
      • Therefore there must be a cause of the universe that exists outside of it
        • This necessary being is God
      • This cause must be a necessary being
        • One which contains the reason for its existence inside itself
    • Immanuel Kant
      • Opposed the theory that a chain of cause-effect events can be set in motion from outside the realm of the physical universe
      • Any talk of the casual cycle stretching beyond the empirical world is non-sensical
        • Makes no sense
      • Cause-effect is set within a spatio-temporal world
        • Relating to space-time world
    • Cosmos = the universe as an ordered, harmonious and holistic entity
    • Argues for the existence of God a posteriori based on the apparent order of the universe
    • Nothing comes from nothing. The universe exists, so something must have made it. That can only be God.

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