Coordination and Control - B1 Unit 2

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  • Coordination and Control - B1 Unit 2.1-2.4
    • Responding to Change
      • Receptors detect stimuli
        • Receptors are in sense organs
          • Eyes
          • Ears
          • Nose
          • Tongue
          • Skin
        • Stimuli
          • Sound
          • Chemicals
          • Temperture
          • Touch
        • Electrical impulses pass to the brain along neurons (nerve cells)
      • The Central Nervous System is made up of the brain and spinal cord
      • Nerves contain neurons
        • Sensory Neurons
          • These carry impulses from receptors to the CNS
        • Motor Neurons
          • These carry impulses from the CNS to the effector organs
            • Effector Organs
              • These can be muscles or glands which respond by contracting or secreting chemicals
    • Reflex Actions
      • A receptor detects a stimulus
        • A Sensory Neuron transmits the impulse to the CNS
          • A Relay Neuron passes on the impulse within the CNS
            • A Motor Neuron is stimulated
              • The Impulse passes to an effector
                • Action is taken
      • The gap between two neurons is a synapse
        • Chemicals transmit the impulse across the gap
      • This sequence is called a reflex arc
    • Stimulus - Receptor - Sensory - CNS - Motor - Effector
      • Sex Really Stimulates Creative Movement in Emergencies
    • Hormones and the Menstrual Cycle
      • Hormones on your period
        • Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH)
          • F = First hormone produce
          • Made in the pituitary gland
          • Causes egg to mature and Oestrogen to be produced
        • Oestrogen
          • Produced by the ovaries
          • Stops the production of FSH
          • Causes the production of LH and stimulates the lining of the womb to thicken
        • Luteinising Hormone (LH)
          • Made by the pituitary gland
          • Causes the egg to be released  from the ovary (ovulation)
      • The cycle takes roughly 28 days
      • Ovulation takes place on the 14th day
    • The Artificial Control of Fertility
      • The Pill
        • Contains Oestrogen and Progesterone
        • Prevents the production of FSH
      • IVF
        • Fertility drugs used to mature lots of eggs at once.
          • Eggs are collected and put in a petri dish with a special solution
            • Sperm are added to the petri dish to fertilise the egg
              • They are checked to see if they are developing then one or two are placed in the uterus.
                • With chance at least one baby will grow.
      • FSH and LH can be given as fertility reatment
        • FSH causes eggs to mature and LH causes ovulation
      • Advantages and Disadvantages
        • Advantages
          • Contraceptives have reduced family sizes, reducing poverty
          • Women can plan and control their pregnancies
          • Fertility can reduce stress and help infertile couples
        • Disadvantages
          • The Pill can cause side effects
          • Some people object to the use of the pill and IVF due to ethical or religious reasons
          • IVF is very expensive
  • Coordination and Control - B1 Unit 2.5-2.7
    • Controlling Conditions
      • The body has to carefully control it's internal environment
        • Internal Conditions
          • Water Content
            • Water leaves the body as we breathe and sweat
            • Excess water is lost in the urine
              • This is produced by the kidneys
          • Ion Content
            • We lose ions in our sweat and urine
          • Temperature
            • We must keep our temperature constant otherwise enzymes in our body wont be able to work as well or at all
          • Blood Sugar Level
            • Sugar is the energy source for cells
            • This is controlled by the pancreas
    • Hormones and the Control of Plant Growth
      • Plants are sensitive to three things
        • Light
          • Phototropism
          • Plant shoots grow towards light
        • Gravity
          • Gravitropism or Geotropism
          • Roots grow down towards gravity
        • Moisture
          • Roots grow towards water
        • The hormone Auxin controls phototropism and gravitropism
          • Unequal balance of auxin in the root or shoot causes unequal speed of growth causing the shoot'root to bend
            • Auxin in the root slows growth - it grows faster on the side with less auxin
            • Auxin in the shoot increases growth - It grows faster on the side with more auxin
          • Plant hormones can be used as weed killers or to help root growth
    • Using Hormones
      • In Women
        • Used in contraceptives - so they can prevent pregnancy and plan when they want one
        • Can be used to help become pregnant
      • In plants
        • Plant hormones used by gardeners and farmers
        • Weed killers
        • When cuttings are taken, hormones used to stimulate root growth
        • Used to help fruit ripen
        • If used incorrectly can cause damage
          • Weedkillers may harm other plants

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