Cooking With Food

  • Created by: elissa.
  • Created on: 12-03-17 10:10
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  • Cooking With Food
    • Meat
      • There are three main types of meat:             -offal             -poultry          -animal
      • When you cook meat it becomes tender which means it is easier to digest
        • When you heat meat it changes colour, connective tissue becomes gelatine, extractions are released and non-enzymic browning takes place
        • There are many ways to tenderise meat
          • Marinating meat uses and acid such as wine, tomato or yoghurt
          • Mechanical is where the meat is minced and flattened using a mallet
          • Ageing is where the meat is hung and left to allow natural enzymes to act.
          • Artificial substances can be used called meat tenderisers
      • You should cook meat until the juices run clear and should use a temperature probe to check the meat has reached the right temperature
      • Meat and poultry should be stored on the bottom shelf of the fridge
      • Always freeze meat before it sell by date . If you defrost meat in the microwave you must cook it immediately. Defrost meat in the fridge if you are not using it immediately. You can only refreeze meat if it has been cooked. Reheat cooked meat once after it has been frozen
    • Fish
      • There are three main types of fish: -oily fish            -white fish     -shellfish
      • Fish is a moist protein food and it is prone to carrying bacteria
      • Fresh fish must be used as soon as possible or covered and stored in the fridge
      • Fish starts to coagulate at 60°C so when frying grilling or baking it needs to be enrobed in a protective coating like flour, breadcrumbsor batter.
        • You can steam or poach fish without a coating.
    • Milk
      • Milk mostly comes from cows and has layer of cream on top
      • Pasteurised whole milk is heated to 72°C for 15 seconds and cooled rapidly to 10°C or below
      • Skimmed milk is pasteurised with all the cream removed
      • Semi-skimmed milk is pasteurised with some of the cream removed
      • UHT milk is heated to 132-140°C for one second then cooled rapidly
      • Sterilised milk is homogenised, bottled sealed and heated to 110°C for 30 minutes which alters its taste
      • Dried milk is less bulky to store and keeps without refrigeration. To produce it water is evaporated leaving a fine powder.
      • There are two types of canned milk: -evaporated (water evaporated off making it sweeter then sterilised)      -condensed( not sterilised with extra sugar added)
      • Soya, rice, coconut and oat milk do not contain lactose.
      • Milk is heat treated to extend its shelf life and kill bacteria
    • Milk Products
      • Butter is made by churning cream.
      • Cream is  made from the fat in milk. It can be further processed to make clotted cream, sour cream etc. On heating it may separate
      • Cheese is milk in solid form it is approx.        one third each of protein fat and water. When heated the fats melt and the protein coagulates and shrinks making it hard to digest.
      • Yoghurt is made by adding a bacterial culture to milk. Yoghurt products are beneficial to the digestive tract.
      • Dairy products should be kept in the fridge.

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