Crime and Deviance - Gender - Control theory

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  • Created by: Amy
  • Created on: 27-03-15 12:41
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  • Control Theory - Heidensohn
    • The control of women by men discourages deviance from norms.
      • Women still have primary responsibility for raising children and domestic work, which involves a commitment to conformity.
    • At Home
      • Women's domestic role imposes severe restriction on their time and  confines them to the house, reducing opportunities to offend.
      • Men control their wives through financial power, denying them funds for leisure activities and thus restricting their time outside the house.
        • Dobash and  Dobash found many violent attacks result from mens dissatisfaction with their wives performance of domestic duties
      • Daughters too are subject to patriarchal control
        • Not allowed to stay out late
          • Develop a bedroom culture (invite friends round)
            • So they have less opportunity to engage in deviant behaviour
              • Expected to do more housework
        • Expected to do more housework
    • In Public Spaces
      • Controlled in public by the threat of male violence against them, especially sexual violence.
        • Islington crime survey found that 54% of women avoided going out after dark due to fear of crime
      • Females are controlled in public by fear of being defined as not respectable
        • May avoid going to pubs on their own out of fear of being regarded as sexually loose.
      • Sue Lees - boys control girls in school through sexualised verbal abuse, if a girl fails to conform to gender expectations
    • At work
      • Women's behaviour is often controlled by male managers and supervisors. Sexual harassment is widespread and helps keep women in their place
      • The glass ceiling prevents women from rising to senior positions where there is greater opportunity to commit white collar crimes
    • Evaluation
      • Carlen - Female crime as a response to patriarchy
        • Conducted in-depth interviews with working class women aged 15-46 who were convicted of a range of offences
          • To these women crime appeared a rational choice (advantages outweighed the disadvantages).
            • Their experience of low payed work and unemployment left them not living the lifestyle they hoped for
              • They also had unhappy and unfulfilling family life, some had been abused.
                • This means they saw crime as rational and certain types of crime, for example, shoplifting and cheque fraud were seen as easy.
                  • Their experience of low payed work and unemployment left them not living the lifestyle they hoped for
                    • They also had unhappy and unfulfilling family life, some had been abused.
                      • This means they saw crime as rational and certain types of crime, for example, shoplifting and cheque fraud were seen as easy.

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