B3 Topic 1(Control systems)

A mind map to use for the upcoming Biology B3 exam in June. 

HideShow resource information
View mindmap
  • Control systems
    • The Kidneys
      • Excretion
        • Remove urea (excess amino acids)
        • Adjust ion levels
      • Nephron
        • Ultrafiltration
          • Bowman's capsule membrane
            • Glomerulus
              • Water, urea, ions, glucose
                • Bowman's capsule membrane
                  • Glomerulus
                    • Water, urea, ions, glucose
          • Reabsorbtion
            • 1st convoluted tubule
              • Glucose against conc. gradient
            • Collecting duct
              • Water based  on ADH (NEGATIVE FEEDBACK)
          • Release of wastes
            • Ureter > Bladder > Urethra
        • Kidney Failure
          • Dialysis
            • Filters blood mechanically
              • Dialysis fluid
                • Same level of salts and glucose
                • Less  water, urea and ions so they can filter out
                  • Permeable membrane
                    • Same level of salts and glucose
          • Transplant
            • Only 'cure'
            • Can be rejected
              • To avoid = similar tissue type and immune suppressing drugs
              • Causes antibodies to attack the foreign antigens and kill
      • Menstruation and reproduction
        • Gametes
          • Sperm (X or Y)
            • Tails = mobility
            • Mitochondria =  energy (respiration)
            • Acrosome = enzymes that digest membrane
          • Egg  (X)
            • Cytoplasm = nutrients
            • Egg changes structure of membrane to prevent extra soerm
        • Cycle
          • Day 1 = menstruation
          • Day 4-14 = uterus lining builds
          • Day 14 = ovulation
          • Day 14-28 = uterus lining maintained
        • Hormones
          • FSH (1)
            • Causes follicle to mature in ovaries
            • Stimulates Oestrogen
          • Oestrogen (2)
            • Causes uterus lining thickening
            • High level = LH surge
          • LH (3)
            • Stimulates ovulation
            • Follicle = corpus luteum which secretes progesterone
          • Progesterone
            • Maintains uterus lining
            • Prevents the production of LH and FSH
            • Low level correspond to oestrogen = uterus break down and FSH increase
        • Chromosomes and diseases
          • Gender
            • Male = XY
              • Sperm (X or Y)
                • Tails = mobility
                • Mitochondria =  energy (respiration)
                • Acrosome = enzymes that digest membrane
            • Female = XX
              • Egg  (X)
                • Cytoplasm = nutrients
                • Egg changes structure of membrane to prevent extra soerm
          • Sex linked disease
            • All X diseases are shown in male as there a Y chromosome is smaller than an X
            • Only X chromosomes are shown to be ressesive or dominant in a punnett squat
            • Examples
              • Colour blindness
              • Hemophilia
      • Daily rhythms and plant drugs/disease
        • Drugs from plants
          • Aspirin (WILLOW) - treat pain
          • Taxol (PACIFIC YEW) - anti cancer
          • Quinine (CHINCHONa TREE) -malaria treatment
        • Pests reduce crop yield
          • Weeds steal nutrients
          • Pests eat
          • Pathogen consume energy
          • Increase cost of producing food (pesticides etc...)
        • Daily rhythms
          • Circadian  (24hr biological process)
            • Controlled internally but influenced by the enviroment
            • Human types
              • Patterns of behavior (sleeping/eating)
              • Chemical (hormone production)
              • Physiological= body temperature
            • Plant examples
              • Stomata opening
              • Flower opening
          • Photoperiodic (Respond to changes in day length
            • Reproduction (Open flowers at right time)
            • Germination (Begin to grow when days are longer
      • The immune system
        • Bacteria produce really quickly (double by splitting in half)
        • Pasteur showed that microbes cause decay and disease
          • Pasteurisation
            • Rapid heating and cooling (70 C)
            • Aseptic technique (reduce contamination)
          • curved neck flask
        • Cells
          • White blood cells
            • B-lymphocytes   (Produce antibodies)
              • Memory  lymphocyte
        • Immunity
          • Dead or harmless pathogen injected
            • Memory lymphocytes produced
              • Faster response from immune system
                • Memory  lymphocyte
          • Jenner used cowpox to immunize against smallpox
            • Exposed boy to cowpox then smallpox
            • Pro = Eradicate and prevent spread of disease
            • Con = Doesn't always work and can have bad reaction
    • Adjust water levels
      • Excretion
        • Remove urea (excess amino acids)
        • Adjust ion levels

    Comments

    No comments have yet been made

    Similar Biology resources:

    See all Biology resources »See all resources »