AQA GCSE Biology Unit 1 2.2 Fertility treatments

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  • Control in the human body
    • Hormones
      • Secreted by glands and are transported to the target organ by the blood stream
      • Made in endocrine glands which form the 'endocrine system'
    • What needs to be controlled
      • Water content- lost when we breathe and via the kidneys in the urine
      • Ion content- lost via skin and kidneys
      • Temperature- to maintain the enzymes at their optimum temperature
      • Blood sugar level- To provide cells with a constant supply of energy
    • Menstrual cycle
      • Pituitary gland releases FSH
        • Stimulates egg maturation
        • Stimulates the release of oestrogen from the ovaries
          • Oestrogen then...
            • causes the uterus lining to thicken
            • Switches off FSH
            • switches on LH
              • releases the egg from the ovary
                • IF EGG IS FERTILIZED then progestrone is released which maintains the uterus lining and stops the release of FSH
                • IF EGG ISNT FERTILIZED then period occur and the cyle begins again
    • Fertility treatments
      • Contraceptive pills stop FSH production so the egg maturation
        • Combined- low doses of Oestrogen and Progesterone
          • Decreases risk of womb cancer by 50%
          • Risk of blood clots
          • Decreases risk of cancer in ovaries by 40%
        • Mini pill- progesterone
          • Less side effects
          • Must be taken punctually
      • Fertility drugs- injection of FSH to mature egg
        • multiple pregnancies (more than one egg released)
        • Weight gain
        • headaches
        • Nausea
      • IVF
        • 1. Drugs taken to suppress natural cycle
        • 2. take FSH injection for 12 days so more eggs are produced
        • 3. Vaginal ultrasound and blood tests to monitor. 38 hours before eggs are collected
        • 4. Aspiration (needle inserted to collect eggs)
        • 5. eggs mixed with sperm. The best fertilized embryos are transferred into the prepared womb
        • Vantages
          • Costs £5000-£8000
          • spare embryos are destroyed
          • Multiple births
          • Embryos can be frozen and used for a later date


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