AS Contributions to Society

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  • Created by: Emma
  • Created on: 09-06-14 09:43
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  • Contributions to Society
    • Social
      • Understanding Prejudice
        • How does this help society?
          • Knowing what causes prejudice means that we can reduce it.
        • Psychological studies to support contribution.
          • Tajfel et al
          • Sherif (1954)
        • Theories that may explain the issue.
          • Social Identity Theory (SIT)
          • Social Conflict Theory
        • Evalauting the contribution.
          • There is evidence to support the contribution
          • Supporting evidence has used laboratory or field experiments so cause and effect conclusions can be drawn.
          • Theories supporting the contribution support one another
          • It is not easy to remove the in-group/out-group behaviour
          • It is likely that different circumstances leads to a decline in prejudice
      • Understanding Obedience
        • Psychological studies to support contribution.
          • Milgram (1963)
          • Hofling et al (1966)
        • How does this help society?
          • Can help us to understand the My Lai massacre
          • Can also help us understand other brutal acts like the Holocaust
        • Theories that may explain the issue.
          • Agency Theory
        • Evaluating the contribution.
          • Evidence shows support towards blind obedience to an authority figure
          • Supporting evidence used field and laboratory experiments so cause and effect conclusions can be drawn
          • Obedience is hard to measure
          • Reasons for not obeying also need to be studied.
    • Learning
      • Token Economy
        • Theories that explain the issue.
          • Operant conditioning
        • Psychological research to support contribution.
        • Evaluating the conribution.
          • The theory behind it is based on strong evidence.
          • Staff members can be trained to use the programme so specialists do not need to be used
          • The behaviours learnt do not transfer into new environments
          • Evidence comes from animal studies so could be hard to generalise to humans.
        • How does this help society?
          • It helps shape and model desired behaviour
      • Systematic Desensitisation
        • Theories that explain the issues
          • Classical conditioning
        • Psychological studies that support contribution
          • Capafons et al (1998)
        • Evaluating the contribution.
          • Therapy is ethical because the patient is involved in decision making throughout.
          • The therapy does not always need a therapist as well.
          • Evidence comes mainly from animal studies which are hard to generalise to humans.
          • It only works for specific phobias.
        • How does this help society?
          • Helps treat phobias
          • Helps people to function normally in society again
    • Psychodynamic
      • Psychoanalysis
        • Theories that may explain the issue.
          • Unconscious, pre-conscious and conscious states
        • Psychological studies to support contribution.
          • Little Hans
        • Evaluating the contribution.
          • A cure is very likely
          • Psychoanalysis  works with some people
          • The concepts are not measurable
          • Untitled
        • How does this help society?
          • It can help those with mental illnesses
          • Society maintains mental health
      • Understanding Gender
        • Theories that may explain the issue.
          • Psychosexual stages
          • Oedipus and Electra complex
        • Psychological studies to support contribution.
          • Little Hans
        • Evaluating the contribution.
          • There is evidence that females will marry someone like their father.
          • Untitled
        • How does this help society?
          • Helps undersatnd gender differences and behaviour.
    • Biological
    • Cognitive
      • The cognitive interview
        • Theories that explain the issues.
          • Reconstructive Memory
          • Leading Questions
        • Psychological studies that support contribution
          • Fisher & Geiselman (1992)
          • Loftus and Palmer
        • Evaluating the contribution.
          • There is strong experimetnal evidence that supports the contribution
          • The cogntivie interview was created because of findings from other research.
          • Memon et al (1997)
          • It is also suggested that how a witness is questioned will not matter as recall will not be perfect.
        • How does this help society?
          • The cognitive interview is to help reduce problems with eyewitness memory.
      • Problems with eyewitness memory
        • Theories that explain the issues.
          • Leading Questions
          • Cue Dependecy Theory
          • Levels of Processing
        • Psychological studies that support contribution.
          • Yuille & Cutshall (1986)
          • Loftus and Palmer (1974)
          • Yarmey
        • Evaluating the contribution.
          • Evidence into the contribution use experiments so cause and effect conclusions can be drawn
          • Findings into eyewitness testimnoy have been applied to courts
          • Yuille and Cutshall's study shows different findings to other studies
          • It is ethically hard to study real witnesses
        • How does this help society?
          • Help in court cases.
          • Can help jurys make the correct decision when convicting offenders.

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