- Tuchman (1978) used it to analyse television portrayal of women
- this study found that females were portrayed in a range of roles and stereotyped.
- content analysis
- Advantages of content analysis: it is cheap. It is usually easy to find sources of material in form of newspapers, television broadcast and so on. Positivists see it as a useful source objective, quantitative, scientific data.
- Content analysis is a method for dealing systematically with the contents of documents.