Conscience

View mindmap
  • Conscience
    • Aquinas on conscience-Syneresis+Conscientia
      • Reasoning and God
        • Aquinas uses the idea of right reason-recta ratio.
        • Ability to reason is given by God result of being created in God's image. Our responsibility to use God- given reasoning correctly.
        • Through developing intellectual virtue of prudence= the ability to make judgements based on circumstances we find ourselves in.
      • Synderesis and conscientia
        • Aquinas "mind of man making moral judgements"
        • Synderesis: natural inclination as we seek to "do good and avoid evil".
          • Involves our awareness of what moral rules are.
          • Habit of reasoning we develop with practise, understand to apply it to moral rules.
          • "It is therefore clear that 'syneresis' is not a power but a natural habit" Aquinas.
        • Conscientia
          • Responsible to educate consciousness so we become better at reasoning and develop our conscience through right reason.
          • Practical working of syneresis.
          • Intellectual process of making actual moral judgements and apply them to our consciousness.
          • Fletcher: conscience is a verb not a noun.
          • "Conscience is not a power, but an act" Aquinas
      • Psychosexula development- Oedipus complex
        • Freud: psychological problems by sexuality- childhood libido.
        • Male child in presexual development, fixation for mother and sees father as obstacle.
        • Child fearful and jealous of father, eventually admires him. Repressed feelings of guilt.
    • Assessing Aquinas' Theological Approach to Conscience
      • Supporting Aquinas' view:
        • Aquinas argues that the conscience is rational. Gut instinct.
        • Conscience can be mistaken, make moral mistakes. Hard when they link to God.
        • Explains how we change and develop our conscience.
        • Explains moral disagreement. If God communicated we would all agree on what these standards are.
      • Difficulties for Aquinas' view
        • Doesn't fit with our experience of conscience feelings. More initiative and emotion.
        • Doesn't prioritise divine relation- Many Christians believe God communicates with us directly.
        • Aquinas doesn't take social+environmental factors into account.
    • Assessing conscience as psychological or from society
      • Supporting Freud's view
        • Freud looks at psychological experience go guilt= explanation. Unlike Aquinas who passes by how we initially experience.
        • Explanation as scientific. Ground explanation in empirical facts.
        • Some support conscience as unreal.
        • Piaget- link morality+conscience with childhood development.
      • Difficulties
        • Freud assumes a natural explanation of guilt; from God?
        • Freud's morality links to moral values of upbringing and reveal differences in moral values. Shared regardless of culture.
        • Freud's work wouldn't be falsified. Popper argues and would say its not science.
    • Comparing Aquinas and Freud
      • The concept of guilt
        • Freud-feelings of guilt and seek to explain it.
        • Aquinas- not intersted in psychosocial issues like guilt and responsibility.
        • Aquinas sees reason as important- start with rationality. God given.
        • Aquinas- guilt by product of acting against conscience. Logical.
        • Freud: conscience is guilt, not objective guilt.
        • Psychological phenomenonnot logical- Freud.
    • Aquinas- vincible and invincible ignorance
      • Aquinas-conscience making mistakes
        • We can make mistakes when we don't educate our conscience- application of rules.
        • Aquinas argues we develop our conscience and gain experience of reasoning. Develop phronesis.
        • Aquinas categorises errors: vincible ignorance and invincible ignorance
          • Vincible ignorance: lack of knowledge where the person is responsible.
          • Invincible ignorance: lack of knowledge where a person isn't at fault.
      • Newman
        • Inner voice.
        • Starts on experience of conscience and argues its key to our psychology like our memory.
        • God's voice speaking to us. Authorative voice we should obey.
        • Experience guilt when we disobey.
    • Freud's psychological view on consicence
      • Three layers of conscience
        • Consciousness: thoughts and desires that we can do and expiernce
        • Preconscious: thoughts and feelings we aren't experiencing but come to the surface.
        • Unconsciousness: thoughts and feelings that buried beneath surface of  our mind and cant be retrieved.
      • Freud and personality
        • Ego: conscious itself, part seen by outside world.
        • Id: unconscious which contains basic desires (sex and death). Ego reasons with id. Superego within the ego.
        • SuperegoL set of moral controls given by authority and ID.
      • Forming super ego and guilt
        • Freud- conscience is super ego explained psychologically- society and parents.
        • Reaction to demands we cant live up to. Internalise voice of parents.
        • Gap between ego (who we actually are) and demands of super-ego (idea of ideal person formed by early interaction).
        • Guilt when we go against the conscience/superego.
        • Superego 'retains the character of the father' other significant figures.
        • Aquinas= God+religion bring wholeness. Follow divine law+right reasoning, conscience helps us to become better people.
        • Freud-religion based on ide a of God causes neuroses and prevents us from becoming psychologically whole.
        • Freud rules out God. Super-ego could be part of our God- given personality and framework.
        • Aquinas God creates humanity+ provides tool of conscience.
      • The process of moral decision making
        • Aquinas-moral decision rational and involves decisions about what God requires us to do.
        • Freud- moral decision making is a reflection on needs of id and superego, theyre often unconscious instincts.
        • Freud-moral thinking learned+caused. Not innate+free.
        • Cant help feeling guilty. Gap between ego and super ego large.
        • Not obliged to follow demands of conscience-moral standards irrational.
        • Good superego=upbringing. Rational controls emotions+ instincts.
      • Fromm alternative psychological explanation
        • Authoriatian conscience: conscience begins with fear of authority. Intense feelings of fear and innervoice. Good authorial conscience gives us a self of wellbeing and security.
        • Untitled

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar Religious Studies resources:

See all Religious Studies resources »See all Ethics resources »