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    • What are conjugal roles?
      • the responsibilities of husbands and wives or couples who are living together as partners
      • Breadwinner = a person who earns money to support their family, typically the sole one
      • In the Industrial Revolution it was normal for husbands wives and children to work in factories.
        • by late 1800s children and married women were removed from the workplace - children went to school and married women expected to stay at homw
      • Six main issues to see whether conjugal roles have become more equal today
        • 1) who earns the money?
        • 2) Who does the household tasks?
        • 3) Who looks after the children?
        • 4) Who makes the decisions?
        • 5) Who controls the money?
        • 6) How must domestic violence is there?
    • Young and Willmott (1973)
      • suggested that conjugal roles were becoming more symmetrical - interviewed 2000 adults in London
        • Husbands (full time work) had 59 tasks in total
        • Wives in full time work had a total of 63 tasks
        • Wives who worked part time had a total of 61 tasks in total
        • Wives with no paid work had a total of 46 roles in total
        • Concluded the symmetrical family has similar roles but not identical ones.
          • men wee still the breadwinner and wives did not expect their husbands to take on the equal role at home - just help
    • Ann Oakley (1974) felt that Y&W overexaggerated symmetry
      • conduced in-depth intervews with 40 mothers who had young children
      • Mothers still felt the housework and children were their responsibility and were grateful for any heklp from partnews,
      • Middle class men were more likely to help at home, especially with child care
    • Pahl (1989)
      • most common form of money management system was husband controlled pooling, where money was shared but husband made influence how it was spent.
      • When cutbacks were made, women were more likely to reduce spending on own food/clothing so husbands/children didn't suffer as much
    • Beck (1992)
      • fathers can no longer reply on jobs for a sense of fulfilment and now look to their children to give them a sense of identity and purpose
    • Duncombe & Marsden (1995)
      • women have a triple shift - paid work, housework and childcare & emotional work
      • women spend time supporting all parties leading to neglect of own psychological well-being
    • Gershuny (2000)
      • men are gradually taking on a greater share of household talks, using the term 'lagged adaptation'
    • Allan and Crow (2001)
      • even when women are engaged in paid employment their domestic responsibilities give them a double burden
    • Terry Ward (2001)
      • more people buy into services - couples who work are time poor cash rich
    • Dermott (2003)
      • the breadwinner father has been replaced by the 'intimate father'
      • - paid work no longer a central in their lives & felt being a good father meant emotionl openness and colse relationship with their children
    • Gillian Dunn
      • lesbian division of labour found 37 couples had more equal gender roles than heterosexual couples
      • had no role models to follow so decided between themselves
    • Reasons for Conjugal Roles
      • laws give women more rights - (2010) equality act, equal pay act (1970), divorce reform act (1969)
      • women have paid work outside the women - feminisation of the workplace
      • women have control over birth and contraception - into of pill (1968) and abortion act (1967)
      • separation of sex and marriage
      • changes in masculinity - needed for emotional participation/housework/childcare
      • less traditional male work
      • changing norms and values in the family


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