AS Psychology: Conformity

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  • Conformity
    • Kelman (1958)
      • Compliance: is the change in behaviour due to the need of acceptance. Private and public views differ.
      • Identification: change in behaviour to be like a role model. Private and public views are the same, but temporary.
      • Internalisation: change in behaviour/ beliefs due to someone elses beliefs. Private and public views are the same and long lasting.
    • Studies demonstrating conformity
      • Kelman (1958)
        • Compliance: is the change in behaviour due to the need of acceptance. Private and public views differ.
        • Identification: change in behaviour to be like a role model. Private and public views are the same, but temporary.
        • Internalisation: change in behaviour/ beliefs due to someone elses beliefs. Private and public views are the same and long lasting.
      • Jenness (1932) Estimates of how many beans in a jar changed when heard others estimates. Forming a group norm
      • Sherif (1935) When estimating the distance the light moved then range decrease when working in a group of three.
      • Asch (1951) 37% conformity when influenced by other confederates.
        • Temporal validity: Perrin and Spenser (1981) argued that there was high pressure to confrom in 1950s america. 33males students: not conformity.       20 males probationers: 1/396. 16 unemployed west indains: high conformity.
        • Cultures: Smith and Bond (1993) meta analysis. Fiji highest: 58%, Belgium lowest: 14%.
        • Markus and Kitayama (1991) : Collectivist 37.1% Indiviualistic 25.3%
        • Gender, Carl and Eagly (1981) Women conform more when audience and pressure on group harmony
    • Variations of conformity
      • Size of majority. 15+ it decreases, suspicious.           3-8 doesn't change
      • Presence of a supporter  decreases conformity
      • Task difficulty: increases conformity due to doubt in ability
      • Face to face: Crutchfield (1954) took away physical presence. Cubicals, electronic displays.. Line matching 30%, star/circle 46%
    • Why we conform to the majority
      • Deutsch and Gerard (1955): Dual process dependency model. 1) to be accepted/liked, NORMATIVE2) to be right, do the right thing INFORMATIONAL
        • Normative variation. Private response  dropped to 12%, supporter dropper to 5%
        • Informational variation.
          • Allen and Levine (1971) No supporter: 94% Valid supporter: 36%. Invalid supporter 64%
          • Lucus (2006). Hard math questions increased conformity as people doubt their ability.

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