Conflicts between king and parliaments, 1665-81

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  • Created on: 13-04-20 12:05
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  • Conflicts between King and Parliaments, 1665-81
    • The Fall of Clarendon, 1667
      • Edward Hyde (1st Earl of Clarendon) dominated early 1660's politics, but didn't put enough effort into managing parliament on the King's behalf.
      • He was held responsible for England's humilitaing defeat in the Second Dutch War (1665-67).
        • This was after the Dutch attacked the English fleet in the river Medway.
        • Charles pointed Parliaments anger against Clarendon.
          • He fled to France in 1667.
      • The removal of Clarendon as cheif minister led to a group of diverse ministers filling his role.
        • became know as the 'Cabal'
    • The 3rd Dutch War, 1672-74
      • 1670, Charles and Louis XIV of France formed the Secret Treaty of Dover.
        • Charles agreed to join France in any future French war against the Dutch.
        • MPs were very unhappy with this agreement.
          • Suspicious of Charles' relationship with the absolutist and Catholic Louis.
          • Most sympathised with the Dutch.
        • In the terms of the treaty, Charles agreed to convert to Catholicism when the time was right, in return for a pension from the French.
          • If the king were to become Catholic it would create huge uncertainty in the kingdom.
      • Charles started the 3rd Dutch War in 1672.
        • Effective propaganda by William of Orange made the war very unpopular with parliament and the people.
          • Anger against the king increased with the Declaration of Indulgence of 1672.
            • Granted a substantial measure of religious freedom to Catholics and dissenters.
        • Due to the financial demands of the war, Charles had to declare himself bankrupt (known as Stop the Exchequer) in 1672.
          • In 1673, after a difficult Parliamentary session, Charles withdrew the declaration.
            • The Test Act of 1673 required all office holders to declare their opposition to Catholic religious doctrines.
              • One effect of this Act was that the King's brother (James, Duke of York) was excluded from high office.
              • Another effect was the fall of the 'Cabal' and the subsequent emergance of Thomas Osborne (Earl of Danby) as Charles' new cheif minister.
    • The Exclusion Crisis, 1678-81
      • In 1678, many wild accusations were made against Catholic nobels and the Queen herself.
        • Claimed they were planning to murder the King and place the Duke of York (Charles' brother) upon the throne.
        • Although the 'Popish Plot' was completely fabricated, it gave parliament the opportunity to denounce the king's ministers.
          • Forced Charles to dissolve the Calvalier Parliament in Janurary 1679.
      • The Exclusion Parliament, 1679-81
        • 2 'Exclusion Parliaments' met in London between 1679-81.
          • Each proposed a bill to exclude the Duke of York from the sucession to the throne.
            • The issue caused widespread debate, supported by many demonstrations supporting exclusion.
            • Charles refussed to consider the proposed measure.
              • Dissolved each parliament after just a few months.
        • A 3rd Parliament met in March 1681 in the royalist stronghold of Oxford.
          • By this time Charles had recieved a large financial subsidy from Louis XIV.
            • This made him more independant from Parliament.
              • Thus, he was able to refuse all of Parliament's demands.
                • It was dissolved after just a few weeks.
      • Whigs and Tories
        • The exclusion Crisis led to the gradual emergance if two political groupings.
          • The whigs supported exclusion.
            • They claimed that toleration of Catholics would cause a drift towards royal absolutism, on the French model.
            • They championed popular sovereignty and the defence of England's religion and its traditional liberties.
          • The Tories  were strong believers in the power of the monarchy, the hereditary succession and respect for authority.
            • They attacked the whigs as closeted republicans, whose beliefs would destabalise the country and lead to another civil war.


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