Conflict on the Plains Summary

A really long summary. But shhhhh.

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  • Created by: Lily
  • Created on: 11-03-13 19:06
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  • Conflict on the Plains
      • 1) PROBLEMS WITH LAW AND ORDER  -Between different groups eg. Indians ans Settlers.
      • 2) THE GROUPS WERE VERY DIFFERENT    -They could not compromise and live side by side             -They perceived each other negatively.
      • 3) GOLD FOUND IN BLACK HILLS -Black Hills sacred to Indians but white settlers wanted to destroy it to obtain gold.
      • 4) ONCE WAR STARTED, IT GOT WORSE   -Nobody wanted to lose their dignity or pride
    • WARS
      • LITTLE CROW'S WAR 1861-1862
        • CAUSES?Started because Indians had poor lives on reservations and so they started to fight back
          • WHAT HAPPENED?    Violence erupted 17th August 1862 when Indians killed settlers. Next day Little Crow led attack on Indian Agency + ambushed soldiers. Fighting until September. But LC could not persuade other Indian groups to join him = he surrendered.
            • RESULTS?     2000 Santee Sioux captured. 38 hanged in Dec     1862. Remainder transferred to new reservation (Crow Creek) in 1863, where 400 died in first winter b/c of no water + food.
      • RED CLOUD'S WAR 1865 - 1868
        • CAUSES?                Caused by discovery of Gold in the Rocky Mountains. new trails broke peace treaty = angry Sioux. So they attacked travelers on trail.
          • WHAT HAPPENED? Sioux attacks on travellers cont. until 1866, when peace talks began (Government being two faced). Soldiers in forts under seige in winter of 1866 but Sioux no strong enough to capture forts. Red Cloud surrounded Fort Phil Kearney throughout winter + killed 80 men.
            • RESULTS?  Government admitted 'defeat', but really withdrew b/c new trails made. Indians though they had won, but they had not. Fort Laramie Treaty made = no non-Indians allowed on Sioux reservation.
      • THE GREAT SIOUX WAR 1876-1877
        • CAUSES?  1874- Custer found gold in Black Hills. This broke the Fort Laramie Treaty as miners (1000+) rushed to Hills. Government offered to but Hills from Sioux, but Hills sacred to Indians, so they rejected the offer = poor relations between the two.
          • WHAT HAPPENED?  In Dec 1875 all Sioux ordered back to reservations, but that was not possible as it was Winter. Approx 7000 Indians with Sitting Bull + Crazy horse = strength of anger over Hills. In Feb 1876, Army instructed to kill all Sioux outside reservations. General Phillip Sheridan led an attack, leading to the Battle of Little Bighorn.
            • RESULTS  News of defeat at the Battle of LBH announced 4th July - 100 years after independence. Public shocked + supported Army. 2 new forts and 2500 reinforcements sent West. Indians attacked through Autumn and Winter. Most bands returned to reserv. Crazy Horse surrendered May 5th 1877. Sitting Bull escaped to Canada. Sioux forced to sell Hills, put under military rule, horses + weapons taken away.
    • WHAT WERE RESERVATIONS LIKE? (formed in 1861)
      • -Farm land very poor quality.             -Difficult to feed themselves = relying on Government    -Indians treated like animals.          -No medical treatment, low food rations, and money stolen.              -People punished w/ no trial + some murdered.       -Disarmed + disease ridden.                   - Could not hunt buffalo b/c herds were wiped out.
      • WHAT?  Indian Wovoka had vision that if Indians did 'Ghost Dance', dead Indians and buffalo would rise + white men would leave. Told Sitting Bull. Dance spread from tribe to tribe. Indians wore shirt - believed to protect them from death. Army became worried, told SB to stop. SB refused = Army went to arrest him. In a struggle, SB killed.
        • MASSACRE (OR BATTLE?) OF WOUNDED KNEE  SB tribe joined with Big Foot's tribe. Army captured all Indian _ took them back to Wounded Knee Creek reserv. 1 Indian did not give up weapon = struggle. In 10 mins, 250 Indians killed. Massacre, not a battle. Ended the Plains War.
        • Wanted to meet halfway, allow Indians to live seperately. Mostly from settlers on coast
        • Wanted to destroy Indian culture, force Indians to live like them. Mostly settlers on Plains + US Army.


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