Condensation and Hydrolysis and their importance in Biology

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  • Condensation and Hydrolysis and their importance in Biology
    • Hydrolysis of carbohydrates
      • Hydrolysis is used to break the glycosidic bond, releasing monosaccharides from a disaccharide.
      • Enzymes are biological catalysts, generated by the body to speed up chemical reactions. They have an active site complementary to a specific substrate. When the substrate binds to the enzyme, it hydrolyses the substrate into smaller molecules.
      • Starch readily hydrolyses to form alpha glucose, which is both easily transported and readily used in respiration
      • Humans consume starch and break it down to simple sugars. This process releases energy for biological processes.
        • Food  is chewed, breaking molecules into  smaller pieces, increasing surface area.
          • Salivary amylase hydrolyse starch to maltose. Mineral salts in saliva maintain pH around neutral- optimum pH for salivary amylase.
            • Food is swallowed and enters stomach, where acid denatures amylase  preventing further hydrolysis.
              • Food mixes with pancreatic juice in small intestine which contains pancreatic amylase which continue to hydrolyse starch to maltose. Alkaline salts are produced by pancreas and intestine wall to keep pH neutral so amylase can function.
                • Muscles in intestine wall push food along the small intestine. Its epithelial lining produces the enzyme maltase, which hydroiyses maltose to glucose for use in respiration.
            • Parotid glands are a type of salivary gland which secrete parotid amylase  needed to break down starch.
    • ATP
      • Provides  potential chemical energy needded for biological processes, such as active transport and muscle contraction
      • To release energy ATP is hydrolysed and produces ADP and PI. ADP can be further hydrolysed to give AMP and another phosphate molecule.This monomer is used as a nucleotide in RNA.
      • On average an ATP molecule is used and resynthesised 30+ times per minute at rest, and around 500+ times per minute during strenuous exercis
    • DNA  + protein synthesis
      • DNA helicase hydrolyses DNA molecule by adding water and splitting Hydrogen bonds between base pairs, unzipping molecule.
        • Free DNA  nucleotides complementary base pair to the two seperate strands. DNA polymerase joins the new free DNA nucleotides together at the sugar phosphate backbone by condensation reactions.
      • Polypeptides (proteins) are made up of monomers called amino acids. There are 20 known amino acids in the human body.
        • Amino acids are joined together by a peptide bond. This bond is formed during condensation reactions.
          • The bond forms inbetween the carboxyll group and amine group of the two amino acids.
        • Proteins can also be hydrolysed by proteases during digestion, so the amino acids can be used to synthesis new proteins.
          • The peptide bond is broken and water is returned to the two amino acids.
          • The same result can be achieved by heating the polypeptide in acid- acid hydrolysis
    • Synthesis of carbohydrates
      • Forming polysaccharides makes the molecule insoluble as it is so large.
      • Monomers form polymers through a series of condensation polymerisation reactions, forming a glycosidic bond. This involves removing a molecule of water from the two monomers.
      • Monomers  can join together in different combinations to form different disaccharides
        • EG: glucose+glucose= maltose glucose+fructose= sucrose glucose+galactose= lactose
      • Starch is formed by linking 200-100000 glucose monomers by glycosidic bonds in a series of condensation reactions. It is compact and therefore used as a storage molecule within plants. It is insoluble, so it does not diffuse easily out of cells.
      • Cellulose is another example of a polysaccharide found in plants- it gives structural support to plant cells.
  • Synthesis of carbohydrates
    • Forming polysaccharides makes the molecule insoluble as it is so large.
    • Monomers form polymers through a series of condensation polymerisation reactions, forming a glycosidic bond. This involves removing a molecule of water from the two monomers.
    • Monomers  can join together in different combinations to form different disaccharides
      • EG: glucose+glucose= maltose glucose+fructose= sucrose glucose+galactose= lactose
    • Starch is formed by linking 200-100000 glucose monomers by glycosidic bonds in a series of condensation reactions. It is compact and therefore used as a storage molecule within plants. It is insoluble, so it does not diffuse easily out of cells.
    • Cellulose is another example of a polysaccharide found in plants- it gives structural support to plant cells.

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