Concerto

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  • Concerto
    • Baroque 1600-1750
      • Key Composers
        • Bach
        • Correlli
        • Handel
        • Vivaldi
      • Key Vocabulary
        • Concerino
        • Continuo (Basso Continuo)
        • Concerto
        • Ripeno
        • Virtuoso
        • Ornamentation
        • Terraced dynamics
        • Ritornello form
        • Balanced phrases
        • Polyphonic/ crontrapuntal
        • Homophonic
        • Concerto Grosso
        • Solo Concerto
        • Baroque Concerto - Key Words
      • The Solo Concerto
        • Developed after the Concerto Gross
        • Technically demanding passages for the soloist
        • Example: Vivaldi's 'The Four Seasons'
        • One soloist accompanied by an orchestra
      • The Concerto Grosso
        • A small group of soloists accompanied by a large group of instruments
        • Example: Bach's 'Brandenburg Concerto No. 4 in G major.
        • Typical instruments
          • Strings
          • Timpani
          • Woodwind
            • recorders
            • oboes
            • bassoons
          • Brass
            • Trumpets
            • Horns without valves
      • Features
        • Clear cadences
        • Diatonic harmony
        • Step/dynamic volume changes
        • Imitation
        • Use of recorders
        • ornamentation/trills
        • counterpoint/ contrapuntal/ polyphonic
        • Use of pairs of oboes/horns
        • Dialogue between instruments and voices
          • Imitation
        • use of harpsichord as a continuo instrument
    • Romantic 1810-1900
      • Key Composers
        • Brahms
        • Chopin
        • Tchaikovsky
        • Rachmaninov
      • Key Vocabulary
        • Rubato
        • Cadenza
        • Virtuoso
        • Tutti
        • Chromatic
        • Melody & Accompaniment Texture
        • Romantic Concerto - Key Words
        • Dissonance
        • Movement
      • The Orchestra
        • The orchestra is a lot larger than in the Classical era.
        • Strings
          • Bigger sections
          • The double section has it's own line of music.
        • Woodwind
          • The clarinet becomes an established instrument of the section
          • Introduction of piccolo, cor anglais, basclarinet & contrabasoon
        • Brass
          • Paired French horns and trumpets.
          • Introduction of trombones and tubas.
        • Percussion
          • Timpani
          • Introduction of the bass drum, side drum and cymbals
      • Features
        • Form was less strict e.g no clear even phrases
        • Greater technical virtuosity
          • For soloists
          • more advanced writing for the orchestra
        • Frequent use of chromatic and some dissonance harmony
        • Dramatic contrasts of dynamic tempos and pitch
          • More sudden and wider range
        • Big orchestras
          • Larger strection
          • More instruments
            • Harp
            • Bass clarinet
            • Piccolo
          • More percussion
    • Classical 1750-1820
      • Key Composers
        • Mozart
        • Beethoven
        • Haydn
      • Key Vocabulary
        • Tutti
        • Alberti Bass
        • Virtuoso
        • Classical Concerto - Key Words
        • Balanced Phrases
        • Melody & Accompaniment Texture
        • Diatonic
        • Cadenza
        • Ornament
        • Movement
      • The Orchestra
        • Larger than in the Baroque period
        • Strings - bigger section
        • Woodwind - paired instruments
        • Brass - paired French horns and trumpets
        • Percussion - timpani
      • The Cadenza
        • Shows off the 'skills' of the soloist
        • Ends with a trill by the soloist
        • Is sometimes improvised based on one or more themes from the first movement
        • Starts with long/loud orchestral chcrds
      • Features
        • Strings form core accompaniment
        • Woodwind used as a section
        • Use of piano/clarinet in the orchestra (only if they are in the piece)
        • Small orchestra
        • melody with accompaniment/homphonic
        • Some ornamentation (not lots of)
        • gradual dynamic changes
        • diatonic harmony/ simple chords
        • Clear cadences
        • Balanced phrases/ regular 4 beat bar

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