Computing Revision

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  • Computing
    • Computer System
      • A collection of hardware and software working together to produce a coded solution
    • Three things all computer systems can do
      • Process
      • Input
      • Ouput
    • Data Integrity
      • Data being accurate  and consistent throughout its life reflecting what it means in the realworld
    • De Facto Standards
      • They ensure that things are the same across computer systems
        • QWERTY Keyboard
    • De Jure Standards
      • Standards that must be adhered by law.They are universally accepted
        • ASCII
          • American Standard Code for Information Interchange
    • Proprietary Standards
      • Decided upon by the company ensuring all their products work together
    • Industry Standards
      • Standards set by recognised non-commericial organisation
    • Open Standards
      • Not dominated  by one particular group and are produced collaboratively so they can be used across many apps and pieces of hardware
        • HTML
    • CPU
      • Central Processing Unit, main hardware within a computer process' are carried out here
        • Fetch
        • Decode
        • Execute
        • Cycles per second is the speed of F-D-E
    • Internet
      • International network of computers
    • Cache Memory
      • Memory that can be easily and quickly accessed b y the CPU
    • RAM and ROM
      • Virtual Memory
        • Memory is stored here when the RAM is full
      • Data currently in use stored in RAM
      • ROM stores the boot sequence
      • Secondary Storage
        • memory used to store data after the computer has been switched off
    • Input
      • Passes a control signal into a computer, triggers a process
    • Output
      • Presents a processed control signal from a computing device
    • Operating system
      • issues error messages, deals with user inputs and manages memory
    • Utility Software
      • Security
        • Anti-virus
        • Firewalls
        • Spyware protection
      • Effieciency
        • Auto-updating
        • Clean-up tools
        • Disk Organiser
    • Custom Written Software
      • Software specially written for a specific customer
    • Off the shelf software
      • Can be brought off a shelf, boxed and installed to a computer
    • Open source software
      • Software that is available to the public for use to gain and develop knowledge
    • Boolean Data Type
      • Used when data is either yes/no or true/false
    • Bus topology
      • all nodes connected in series with terminators at each end to absorb excess data
        • Cheap and easy to set up
        • Data collisions so it is slow
    • Star Network
      • Each client is connected to a main switch/hub
        • Fast, few data collisons
        • More hardware needed, hard to set up
    • Compression
      • Lossless
        • File size reduced by not storing repeated data
      • Lossy
        • Reducing file size by removing some unneeded data
    • Machine Code
      • Code understood by the computer and is in binary
    • Iteration
      • Instructions that are repeated until a condition is met
    • Logic error
      • An error in the code that does not cause the program to crash
    • Ring Topology
      • A ring network is a network topology in which each node connects to exactly two other nodes, forming a single continuous pathway for signals through each node - a ring
        • If one part of the network breaks data will not be able to reach other nodes
        • Less data collisions as it all travels in one direction
  • A ring network is a network topology in which each node connects to exactly two other nodes, forming a single continuous pathway for signals through each node - a ring
    • If one part of the network breaks data will not be able to reach other nodes
    • Less data collisions as it all travels in one direction

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