Computer Science

  • Created by: AOconnor
  • Created on: 13-05-18 15:40
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  • Computer Science
    • Von Neumann Architecture
      • Both the computer program and the data it processes are stored in memory
      • MAR
        • Location address in memory of next instruction/data CPU needs to fetch/store
      • MDR
        • Temporarily stores instructions/data fetched from memory until needed
      • PC
        • Provides CPU with memory address of next instruction in cycle to be executed
      • Accumulator
        • Temporarily stores results of calculations until needed
      • Bus
        • Physical pathway shared by signals to and from components of system
          • Arrows represent wires and circuit boards
    • CPU
      • Processes information/instruction and coordinates flow of data around system
      • Cache
        • Small and extremely fast memory that stores data while instructions are carried out
          • Prevents data bottlenecks when communicating with RAM and secondary storage
      • CU
        • Controls flow of data around system
      • ALU
        • Performs mathematical and logic calculations
    • FDE cycle
      • Instruction fetched from memory
        • instruction decoded
          • Decoded instruction executed so CPU performs contiuously
            • Process repeated
              • Program counter incremented
    • System Security
      • Firewall
        • Prevents unauthorised access
      • Anti-malware
        • Removes viruses from infecting system
      • Encryption
        • Renders intercepted data useless
      • User-access levels
        • Users have restricted access
      • Network Policies
        • Rules that define acceptable use
    • Secondary storage
      • Magnetic
        • Advantages
          • High capacity, low cost
          • Fast data access
        • Disadvantages
          • Disk eventually fails
          • Easily damaged (corruption of data)
          • Large physical size
          • Moving parts
        • Uses
          • Network storage
          • Desktop PCs
          • Large documents
          • Backup systems
      • Optical
        • Advantages
          • Cheap
          • Portable
          • Widely available
        • Disadvantages
          • Discs damage easily and degrade over time
          • Limited capacity
          • Compatibility issues
        • Uses
          • Storing music/videos
          • CD/DVD/Blu-ray
      • Solid State
        • Advantages
          • Fast access
          • Small physical size
          • No moving parts
          • Very portable
        • Disadvantages
          • Most expensive
          • Wears out over time
        • Uses
          • USB portable drives
          • Smartphone and camera memory
          • Laptop hard drives

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