Compounds and ionic and covalent bonding

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  • Compounds
    • Atoms join together to make compounds
      • When 2 or more elements react
      • The atoms of each element are in fixed proportions in the compound
      • Atoms are held together by chemical bonds
      • Only way to separate a compound into its elements is by using a chemical reaction
    • Different types of a compound
      • Covalent - non-metal bonding. They share pairs of electrons in their outer shells
        • Have electrostatic forces - v strong
        • Stable atoms because they make enough covalent bonds to fill up their outer shells
      • Ionic - metals and non-metals bonding. They lost electrons to form + charged ions
        • Non-metal atoms gain these electrons to form negatively charged ions
        • Strongly attracted to each other by electrostatic forces
        • The ionic bonds hold it together to make an ionic compound
          • Have a giant lattice structure, strong electrostatic forces
          • High metling & boiling points - lots of energy is needed to break all the strong ionic bonds, when solid can't conduct electricity, when melted can conduct, dissolve in water and conduct electricity
        • Dot and Cross diagrams - show how ionic compounds are formed
          • Electron - represented by a dot/cross
          • Don't show the structure of the compound, the size of the ions or how they're arranged


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