Components of Blood

  • Created by: nauranazh
  • Created on: 19-05-19 17:15
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  • Components of Blood
    • Red Blood Cells
      • contain hemoglobin (gives blood its color) - contains lots of iron
      • no nucleus - frees more space for more hemoglobin, so they can carry more oxygen
      • pick up oxygen from the lungs - adapted to carry oxygen around the body (tissues and cells) where it is needed
      • In the lungs : hemoglobin + oxygen = hemoglobin    In body cells, the reverse reaction happens to release oxygen into        the cells
        • The binding of oxygen is a reversible reaction
      • small and biconcave discs
        • to give a large surface area for absorbing and releasing oxygen
    • Plasma
      • liquid part of the blood (pale yellow color), mainly consisting of water
        • contains everything in the blood
          • Red and White Blood Cells
          • Platelets
          • Hormones
            • Hormones act as chemical messengers
          • Antibodies/ Antitoxins
      • digested food molecules (i.e glucose and amino acids) from the gut to the body cells)
      • urea from the liver to the kidneys
      • carbon dioxide from the body cells to the lungs
      • heat energy
    • White Blood Cells
      • part of the body's defense system against pathogens
        • Lymphocytes
          • each pathogens has antigens on its surface. When they come across foreign antigens, lymphocytes 'mark' them by producing proteins called antibodies which lock on to the invading pathogens
            • the antibodies mark the pathogens out for the phagocytes to ingest (the lymphocytes don't kill the pathogens)
              • the antibodies are specific to a type of antigen so they won't lock on to any other. Instead it'll produce rapidly and flow around the body to mark similar pathogens
                • some of the lymphocytes stay in the blood as "memory cells"
                  • that's why you're immune to most diseases if you have already had them
        • Phagocytes
          • detect foreign pathogens and engulf them in order to ingest/ destroy them
          • they are non-specific and will attack anything that is not meant to be there
    • Platelets
      • lack of platelets cause excessive bleeding and bruising
      • Help clot the blood by "clumping" together
      • no nucleus
      • small fragments of cells
      • help to produce a network of protein threads called "fibrin"
        • threads capture lots of red blood cells and more platelets to from jelly-like clot
          • the clot dries and hardens to form a scab
            • the scab protects the new skin as it grows and stops blood loss and also prevents microorganisms entering the wound

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