The need for Communication

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  • Created by: Katieh211
  • Created on: 12-03-14 13:07
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  • Communication
    • Environmental change is a stimulus and the way in which the organism changes its behavior or physiology is a response.
      • A stimulus must be monitored and a organism must respond to the change.
    • In animals the internal cells and tissues are bathed in tissue fluid. This is the environment of the cells.
      • As cells undergo their various metabolic activities they use up substrates and produce products
        • Some of these products may be unwanted or even toxic.
          • These substances diffuse out of the cells into the tissue fluid.
            • Therefore the activities of the cells alter their own environment
              • One waste product is carbon dioxide. If this is allowed to build up in the tissue fluid outside the cells it could disrupt the action of enzymes by changing the pH of the environment around the cells.
      • The composition of the tissue fluid is maintained by the blood
        • Any wastes or toxins  accumulating in the tissue fluid are likely to enter the blood and be carried away.
    • Cordination
      • A multicellular organism is more efficient than a single-celled organism, as its cells can be differentiated.
        • This means that its cells can be specialised to perfom particular functions.
          • Groups of cells specialised in this way form tissues and organs.
      • A good communication system will
        • Enable specific communication
        • Enables cells to communicate with each other.
        • Enable rapid communication
        • Cover the whole body
        • Enable both short-term and long-term responses
    • Cell signalling
      • How cells communicate with each other
      • One cell releases a chemical which is detected by another
      • There are two major systems of communication that work by cell signalling
        • The neuronal system is an interconnected network of neurones that signal to each other across synapse junctions
          • The neurones can conduct a signal very quickly and enable rapid responses to stimuli that may be changing quickly
        • The hormonal system uses the blood to transport is signals
          • Cells in an endocrine organ release the signal directly into the blood.
            • It is carried all over the body but is only recognised by specific target cells.
              • The hormonal system enables longer-term responses to be coordinated


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