Communicable diseases

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  • Communicable diseases, prevention, immune system
    • Different types of pathogen that cause communicable diseases in plants and animals
      • Bacteria
        • Tuberculosis
          • Humans
        • Bacterial meningitis
          • Potatoes
          • Tomatoes
        • Ring rot
          • Tomatoes
          • Potatoes
      • Virus
        • HIV/AIDS
          • Humans
        • Influenza
          • Animals
        • Tobacco mosaic  virus
          • Plants
      • Fungi
        • Black sigatoka
          • Bananas
        • Ringworm
          • Cattle
        • Athletes foot
          • Humans
    • Means of transmission of animal and plant communicable pathogens
      • Direct transmission of pathogens between animals
        • DIRECT CONTRACT
          • Skin to skin
        • INOCULATION
          • Break in the skin
          • Sharing needles
        • INGESTION
          • Taking in contaminated food or drink
      • Direct transmission of pathogens between plants
        • WHEN HEALTHY PLANTS COME IN CONTACT WITH DISEASED PLANTS
      • Indirect transmission of pathogens between plants
        • SOIL CONTAMINATION
          • Infected plants can leave pathogens or reproductive spores in the soil
        • VECTORS
          • Transmit from one host to anohter
            • Wind
      • Indirect transmission of pathogens between animals
        • FORMITES
          • Transfer of pathogens from inanimate objects
        • DROPLET INFECTION
          • Sneezing, talking or coughing minute droplets of saliva are expelled from the mouth
        • VECTORS
          • Transmits communicable pathogens from one host to another
    • Plants defences against pathogens
      • Callose deposition
        • 1. Callose is synthesised and deposited between cell walls
        • 2. Deposits stop pathogens from entering
        • 3, Lignin is added, making the mechanical barrier even thicker and stronger
        • 4. Callose blocks sieve plates and seals of infected part and prevent spread of pathogens
    • Primary non-specific defences against pathogens in animals
    • The structure and mode of action of phagocytes
      • Pathogen attracts phagocyte. Recognition. Phagoyte engulfs pathogen, forming a phagosome. Lysosome and phagosome join to form a phagolysome. Enzymes digest pathogen. Digest material enters vesicle. Exocytosis. APC on phagocyte membrane
    • Structure, different roles and modes of action of B and T lymphocytes  in the specific immune response
    • The primary and secondary immune responses
    • The structure and general functions of antibodies
    • The differences between active and passive immunity, and between natural and artificial immunity
      • Active
      • Passive
      • Natural
      • Untitled
    • Autoimmune diseases
      • When the immune system stop recognising 'self' cells and begins to attack healthy tissue
    • The principles of vaccination and the role of vaccination programmes in the prevention of epidemics
      • A small amount of a safe antigen is called a vaccine
      • A primary response is triggered by a foreign antigen and the body produces and memory cells
      • A secondary triggered and the pathogen is rapidly destroyed before symptoms develop
    • Possible sources of medicine
      • Penicillin
        • Mould growing on melons
        • Antibiotic
          • Treat against bacteria diseases
      • Aspirin
        • Sallow bark
        • Painkiller and anti-flammatory
      • Dandelion
        • Treat liver disease
        • Treat kidney diseases
    • Benefits and risks of using antibiotics to manage bacterial infection
      • Benefits
        • Simple to use with convenient doses
          • Safe to use during pregnancy
            • Broadly used against age groups
      • Risks
        • Can cause toxic side effects
          • New strains can form
            • Can cause allergic response

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