Communicable Diseases

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  • Created by: Abc312
  • Created on: 09-05-18 20:50
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  • Communicable diseases
    • A pathogen is a microorganism that enters the body and causes disease.
      • They cause communicable disease that can be easily spread
    • Pathogens can spread and infect plants by:
      • Water: bathing in or drinking contaminated water
      • Air: Can be spread through the air in droplets made when you cough or sneeze.
      • Direct contact: Touching something that is infected- sexual contact, skin.
    • Spread of disease can be reduced by:
      • Being hygienic
        • Washing your hands before making food are after sneezing.
      • Destroying Vectors
        • By getting rid of the things that spread disease you stop it being passed on.
      • Isolating infected individuals
        • This prevents it from being passed on to anyone else.
      • Vaccination
        • This means that that person cannot develop the infection and therefore cannot pass it one
    • Viruses
      • They are not cells
      • Tiny- 1/100th of a bacterium, 1/10000th of a body cell
      • Reproduce rapidly inside your body.
        • Live inside cells and replicate using the cells machinery
          • The cell will eventually burst
            • It is the cell damage that makes you feel ill.
      • HIV
        • Spread by sexual contact or exchanging bodily fluids (like drugs needles)
        • Initially causes flu-like symptoms lasting a few weeks.
          • Usually doesn't cause any more symptoms for a few years.
            • In this time it is controlled with antiretroviral drugs
        • The virus attacks immune cells
        • Once the immune system is too badly damaged it is called late stage HIV or AIDS
          • This is where the body can no longer cope with other infections or cancers
      • TMV- Tobacco mosaic virus
        • Affects loads of plants including tomatoes
        • Causes discolouration on the leaf in a mosaic pattern
          • This reduces the light that can get to the leaf which reduces photosynthesis.
            • This stunts the growth of the plant.
      • Measles
        • Spread by droplets from an infected person's sneeze/cough
        • The symptoms are a red skin rash and signs of fever
        • Can be very serious or fatal if there are complications.
          • Can lead to pneumonia ( a lung infection) or encephalitis (a brain infection)
        • Young children are vaccinated against it.
    • Bacteria
      • Very small cells (1/100th of the size of a body cell)
      • Reproduce rapidly inside your body
        • They produce toxins that damage cells
          • This is what makes you feel ill/
      • Salmonella
        • A type of food poisoning
        • Spread by bacteria from contaminated food or food made in unhygienic conditions.
        • It is controlled in the UK by vaccinating poultry against it.
        • The symptoms are  a fever, stomach cramps, vomiting and diarrhoea
          • This is caused by the toxins from the bacteria
      • Gonorrhoea
        • An STD.
          • Spread by sexual contact
        • The symptoms are pain when urinating and a thick yellow/green discharge from the vagina or penis.
        • Treated with penicillin but now there are lots of resistant strains
        • Spread controlled by using barrier contraception(condoms)
    • Protists
      • Malaria
        • The malarial protist takes part of its lifecycle in the mosquito.
        • Causes repeated episodes of fever
        • Can be fatal
        • The spread can be controlled by stopping mosquitos breeding, using insecticides and mosquito nets.
      • Most are single sealed and all are eukaryotes.
      • Some are parasites that live on or inside other organisms causing them damage.
        • They are often transferred by a vector thatdoesn't get the disease itself.
    • Fungi
      • Rose black spot
        • Purple or black spots develop on the leaves
          • The leaves often turn yellow and fall off early
        • It causes less photosynthesis to happens it stunts plant growth.
        • It is spread by water or wind
        • Can be treated by using fungicides or removing and destroying affected leaves
      • Some are single-celled others have a body made from hyphae(thread-like substances)
      • The hyphae can grow and penetrate human skin and plant surfaces
      • The hyphae produce spores which can spread to other animalsand plants.

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