B3 - Communicable Disease

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  • Communicable Disease
    • Protists
      • Eukaryotes
      • Usually single-celled
      • Some protists are parasites
        • Live on/inside organisms and can cause them damage
        • Often transferred by vectors
          • Vectors dont get the disease themselves and instead only carry it
      • Examples
        • Malaria
          • Symptoms
            • fever
            • sweats and chills
            • headaches
            • vomiting
            • muscle pains
            • diarrhoea
          • Treatment
            • antimalarial treatments
          • Mechanism fro spreading
            • a bite from an infected mosquito (vector)
    • Bacteria
      • Very small living cells (about 1/100th of body cells)
      • Reproduce rapidly inside body
      • Make you feel ill by producing toxins which damage cells and tissue
      • Bacteria
        • Gonorrhoea
          • Symptoms
            • thick yellow/green discharge
            • bleeding between periods (in women)
            • pain when urinating
          • Mechanism for spreading
            • unprotected sexual contact
          • Treatments
            • antibiotic injection
            • antibiotic tablet
        • Salmonella
          • Symptoms
            • diarrhoea
            • fever
            • abdominal cramps
            • dehydration
            • chills
            • headaches
            • blood in stool
          • Treatment
            • Antibiotics
            • Hydration (possibly rehydration liquid)
          • Mechanism for spreading
            • Eating contaminated food
    • Viruses
      • Viruses are not cells (1/1000th of a bacterium)
      • Rapidly reproduce inside body
        • Live inside cells and replicate until the cells bursts
          • Cell damage is what makes people feel ill
      • Examples
        • Measles
          • Symptoms
            • fever
            • red rash over skin
            • inflamed eyes
          • Mechanism fro spreading
            • droplet infection (talking, coughing, sneezing) and droplets are inhaled
          • Treatment
            • Vaccinations to prevent as chldren
            • No meditations available
            • Usually disappears with 2 to 3 weeks
        • HIV
          • Symptoms
            • persistent diarrhoea
            • fever, chills and night sweats
            • nausea
            • chronic fatigue
          • Mechanism for spreading
            • direct sexual contact
            • sharing needles
          • treatments
            • antiretrovial therapy (medications)
        • TMV
          • Symptoms
            • stunting
            • yellowish streaking of leaves
            • malformation of leaves from growing points
          • Mechanism for spreading
            • direct contact, such as human handling
          • Treatments
            • There is no known chemical treatment
    • Fungi
      • Come in different shapes
        • Some are single-celled
        • Some have a body which is made up of hyphae (thread-like structure)
          • Hyphae can grow and penetrate human skin?plant surfaces, causing disease
          • Hyphae can also produce spores which can be spread between animals and plants
      • Examples
        • Rose black spot
          • Symptoms
            • leaf tissue may turn yellow
            • rapidly growing purplish/black patch on leaf
          • Treatment
            • avoid watering
            • remove infected leaves
            • chemical treatments are available
          • Mechanism for spreading
    • Definition
      • A disease which is infectious.
    • How pathogens can be spread
      • Water
        • Pathogens can be spread by drinking or bathing in dirty water
      • Air
        • Pathogens an be carried in the air and breathed in
        • Some pathogens are transferred through droplets which can be produced by a drop or sneeze
      • Direct Contact
        • Pathogens can be picked up by touching contaminated surfaces
    • Preventing Disease
      • Being Hygenic
      • Destroying vectors
      • Isolating infected vectors
      • Vaccinations

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