COLLECTIVISATION IN RUSSIA

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  • Collectivisation
    • SOCIAL COSTS
      • punishments for peasants who didn't keep up with procurement quotas
        • dekulakisation
          • 10 million killed from resistance or deported
          • ideology
      • 150,000 peasants forced to move North to poorer land
      • 15% of households destroyed
      • system of passports forbade peasants from leaving kolkhozes (1932)
        • prevented peasants from leaving famine-stricken areas
      • armed forces dealt with unrest brutally- stealing one ear of corn resulted in death
      • famine 1932-1934 in Ukraine and Kazakhstan 7-10 million people died
        • some say intentional to take political control
    • ECONOMIC BENEFITS
      • initial food quotas were met and sufficient to support industrialisation and urban workers
    • ECONOMIC COSTS
      • farm production fell to 1913 levels and didn't recover until the 1930s
      • grain and livestock were destroyed by peasants - 30% of animals
        • kulaks wanted to disguise themselves
      • grain output didn't exceed pre-collectivisation levels until 1935 and 1953 for livestock
      • unskilled party activists slowed down the economy by managing farms
        • skilled farmers removed by dekulakisation
    • POLITICAL BENEFITS
      • able to remove Bukharin as Stalin moved towards a fast revolution
        • Bukharin favoured slower movement
      • destroying the kulaks gave Stalin a degree of control over the peasants
      • allowed USSR to extend control over countryside through party officials
        • although, Stalin only visited the countryside once, so was very dependent on his commissars
          • POLITICAL COSTS
            • Collectivisation
              • SOCIAL COSTS
                • punishments for peasants who didn't keep up with procurement quotas
                  • dekulakisation
                    • 10 million killed from resistance or deported
                    • ideology
                • 150,000 peasants forced to move North to poorer land
                • 15% of households destroyed
                • system of passports forbade peasants from leaving kolkhozes (1932)
                  • prevented peasants from leaving famine-stricken areas
                • armed forces dealt with unrest brutally- stealing one ear of corn resulted in death
                • famine 1932-1934 in Ukraine and Kazakhstan 7-10 million people died
                  • some say intentional to take political control
              • ECONOMIC BENEFITS
                • initial food quotas were met and sufficient to support industrialisation and urban workers
              • ECONOMIC COSTS
                • farm production fell to 1913 levels and didn't recover until the 1930s
                • grain and livestock were destroyed by peasants - 30% of animals
                  • kulaks wanted to disguise themselves
                • grain output didn't exceed pre-collectivisation levels until 1935 and 1953 for livestock
                • unskilled party activists slowed down the economy by managing farms
                  • skilled farmers removed by dekulakisation
              • POLITICAL BENEFITS
                • able to remove Bukharin as Stalin moved towards a fast revolution
                  • Bukharin favoured slower movement
                • destroying the kulaks gave Stalin a degree of control over the peasants
                • allowed USSR to extend control over countryside through party officials
                  • although, Stalin only visited the countryside once, so was very dependent on his commissars
                    • POLITICAL COSTS
                      • having more control over the peasants did not solve the resistance
                      • 1930- collectivised villagers rose up with machine guns and chased officials out of towns, killing chairmen- took 1 month for Stalin to claim control
              • IDEOLOGY BENEFITS
                • liquidation of kulaks removed class structure
                • removed free market
                • so successful that Stalin had to break from it in 1941
                  • activists being too ruthless
                • 100% of farms collectivised by 1941
                • Stalin's Machiavellian attitude meant that social costs didn't matter to him
                • 25% target by 1930- 58% achieved
            • having more control over the peasants did not solve the resistance
            • 1930- collectivised villagers rose up with machine guns and chased officials out of towns, killing chairmen- took 1 month for Stalin to claim control
    • IDEOLOGY BENEFITS
      • liquidation of kulaks removed class structure
      • removed free market
      • so successful that Stalin had to break from it in 1941
        • activists being too ruthless
      • 100% of farms collectivised by 1941
      • Stalin's Machiavellian attitude meant that social costs didn't matter to him
      • 25% target by 1930- 58% achieved

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