Key topic 1

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  • Created by: esmecav_x
  • Created on: 23-12-15 19:14
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  • Collapse of the tsarist regime, 1917
    • The way Russia was ruled
      • Geographical problems
        • Many different ethnic groups or peoples
        • Size
      • How the tsar governed Russia
        • Autocracy
        • Believed he had a divine right to rule
        • Tsar had council of ministers
        • Thousands of tax-collectors
      • The Orthodox Church
        • 70% of population were members of this church
        • Very closely linked to the Tsar
        • Unpopular
    • Nicholas 2 was a weak tsar
      • Autocracy only worked if the tsar was strong
      • He was ignorant of the nature / extent of opposition
    • The Russian economy was so backwards in early 1900s
      • Most people lived in the countryside but agriculture was poor
      • Industrialization did not happen until the end of the 19th century
      • Many peasants moved to towns and cities for workd
    • Discontented peasant and town workers
      • What life was like for the wealthy
        • Aristocracy made up just over 1% of the population
        • In 1914 Russia developed a middle class due to the development of industry
      • What life was like for the peasants
        • Life was hard
        • Poor living conditions
        • Life expectancy was less that 40
        • Peasants felt bitter towards nobles
        • Biggest, poorest group
      • Town workers
        • Peasants went to the towns/cities to find work
        • Terrible conditions
        • Earned low wages and worked long hours
        • Forbidden to  start trade unions to fight for better conditions
    • Growth of opposition to Nicholas 2
      • 'Bloody Sunday'
        • Peaceful march by 200,000 people to the tsar's winter palace
        • Tsar was not in palace
      • 1905 Revolution
        • Bloody Sunday and the defeat in the war with Japan
        • Strikes and mutiny in navy
        • Tsar issued October manifesto
        • Warning tsar of need for change
      • Failure of Dumas
        • Nicholas 2 made sure that after 1905 Duma had little power
        • Tsar had power to dissolve duma and change the rules  by which it was elected
        • Tsar went against October manifesto
      • Industrial unrest
        • Poor living / working conditions
      • Rasputin
        • Tsar and tsarina relied on help / guidance of Rasputin
        • Position at court grew
        • Ammunition for those who did not like the tsarina
    • Political groups opposed the tsar
      • Social Democratic Party
        • Followed teachings or Karl Marx
        • Believed that workers would stage a revolution and remove the tsar
        • Bolsheviks
        • Mensheviks
      • Socialist Revolutionaries
        • Revolution by peasants and aimed to get rid of the tsar
        • Share all land among peasants
        • Some wanted to use terror or constitutional methods
      • Constitutional Democratic Party
        • Wanted a constitutional monarch and elected parliament
        • Led by Milyukov
        • Some were prepared to set up a republic
      • Octobrists
        • Set up after October manifesto
        • Believed tsar would carry out his manifesto promises
        • Led by Guchkov
        • Most support came from middle classes

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