Collapse of autocracy

  • Created by: Lai Ling
  • Created on: 15-04-19 11:58
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  • Collapse of the Russian Empire!
    • WW1
      • Devastating impact on russia
        • Millions killed + wounded
        • Low morales
        • economy couldn't cope
        • Distribution system broke down- food + fuel shortages
      • Gov bureaucracy was incompetent
        • Individuals + firms set up own relief systems
          • Zemstva
          • Supplied resources etc.
        • alternative form of gov?
      • Tsar made fatal mistakes
        • went to front- personal responsibility for war
        • Leaving Rasputin and Tsarina in charge
          • antagonised system
        • Feb 1917- support for Tsar eroded= revolution
    • 1905 Revolution
      • Russo-japanese war 1904-05
        • Context
          • Rose out of russia's expansionary policy
          • Port arthur 1904
          • Humiliation for russian army
        • Gov. became unpopular- assassination of minister of interior
          • Liberals called a zemstvo (national) november
            • Press reported, no censorship
          • Economic impact of war too
      • Bloody Sunday
        • On January 22, 1905, a group of workers led by the radical priest Georgy Apollonovich Gapon marched to the czar’s Winter Palace in St. Petersburg to make their demands.
        • Imperial forces opened fire on the demonstrators, killing and wounding hundreds. Strikes and riots broke out throughout the country in outraged response to the massacre, to which Nicholas responded by promising the formation of a series of representative assemblies, or Dumas, to work toward reform.
      • Mutiny on the battleship potemkin
      • The October Manifesto
        • Civil liberties
        • Elected duma
        • Brief period of celebratation
        • Then violence returned-tsars supporters angry
          • Anti-semitic attacks
          • Attacks on the left
      • random acts of violence etc.
      • Tsarist regime regains control
        • Brutal + repressive methods
        • 1905-06, 15,000 people executed, 45000 deported
        • Army remained loyal
        • Middle class scared of violence
        • April 1906 = loan from france, stable economy
      • Importnce
        • regima can survive so long as army are loyal
        • political freedom- taste
          • Give an inch take a mile
        • same social fabric of society
    • Oppositional groups- ideologies
      • Liberals
        • zemstva councils created a class skilled in local politics
        • Reform rather than violence to change autocracy-limit powers
        • Kadets
          • Thought october manifesto was too moderate
        • Octoberists
          • Agreed with October manifesto- thought that this was enough
        • Freedom of individual, middle class intelligentsia
      • Social Revolutionaries (SRs)
        • Grew out of populist movement
          • Loose organisation with variety of views
            • Not centrally controlled
          • Merged in 1901-02 (The people's will and the black partition)
          • Assassinated 2000 gov. officials 1901-05
        • Revolution with the peasants where tsarist gov. would be overthrown- capitalism developing is a fact
        • Agitation and terrorism
        • Large peasant support base, 1905 industrial workers = 50% of membership
      • Social democrats
        • MARXIST!
        • 1903 second party congess split into two factions
          • Bolsheviks
            • -small number of highly disciplined professional revolutionaries
            • Centralised leadership
            • System of small cells-difficult to infiltrate
            • Younger, militant workers
          • Mensheviks
            • Broadly based- accept anyone
            • Be more democratic
            • Encourage trade unions to help working class improve conditions
            • Different types of workers + intelligentsia, more non-russians
        • working class support
    • Nicholas II
      • Lacked training and experience in leadership
      • Completely wedded to idea of atuocracy
      • Zubatov trade unions
        • Demanded employees to make concessions
        • Dismissed in 1903 after a strike
        • Constructive response to problems in cities
        • Head of Moscow Okhrana set it up
      • Pursued russification and kept emergency powers
      • Witte's modernisation threatened scheme
        • millions of peasants in factories = tension
        • educated workforce could articulate political views
        • Growth of middle classmeans olitical change pressure
      • Famine + great depression 1900s
    • The Dumas
      • Constitutional experiment
      • April 1906= fundamental laws
        • Maintains auocracy
        • Liberals dismayed
      • Stolypin
      • 1 APRIL 1906
        • Kadets won most seats- 182/448
        • Air of hostility to tsar
          • Elections should be universal and secret
          • Duma should have more power
        • Two months of disagreement
        • Tsar, shocked by disrespect dissolved Duma
        • Gov. closed kadets offices after vyborg manifesto
          • Telling finnish russians not to pay tax
      • 2 FEB 1907
        • Still hope- 70% of st petersburg voted
        • More radical elected people
        • Disagreements between left and right
        • Dissolved after three months
      • 3
        • More co-operative
        • Stolypins land reforms
        • Improvements in army and navy
        • Education law 1908-univeral education
        • JP's instead of land captains
        • National health insurance scheme
      • 4- WW1
        • rightists stronger
        • Progressive bloc formed
          • Nic. wouldn't countenance it
        • Duma was later suspended
        • Lots of chat not much action
      • Working?
        • Stolypin assassinated sept. 1911
          • creative relationship disappears
        • nic. still really wants autocracy
        • Stolypin hated by left and right
        • regime became reliant on right-wing support

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