Chapter 28 Cold War and Consensus

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  • Created by: kkbonbon
  • Created on: 19-03-18 00:08
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  • Cold War
    • Legacies of the Second World War
      • war has destroyed most of the continent
      • more deaths than WWI
      • many homeless and refugees
      • Germany split up into four zones for each of the allies
      • Nuremberg trials: sentenced 10 high-ranking Nazi officials
    • The Peace Settlement and Cold War Origins
      • political and ideological differences were the main reason why eastern and western Europe grew apart
      • postponed post war discussions in order to keep the Allies together
      • Tehran, Yalta, and Potsdam conferences
      • Stalin wanted to establish a buffer zone between Russia and Germany
    • West Versus East
      • US said that it would help any country fighting for democracy
      • Truman Doctrine
      • Churchill said that an "iron curtain" has fallen over Europe
      • Marshall Plan
      • Berlin Blockade and Airlift
      • NATO
      • Warsaw Pact
    • The Global Economy
      • economies organized around free-market neoliberalism
      • 1997-banking crisis in Thailand spread to rest of world
      • EU (European Union)
      • Maastrict Treaty
      • Treaty of Lisbon
    • Postwar Life in the East Bloc
      • Cominform or Communist Information Bureau
      • Stalin used the US as an excuse for a rigid dictatorship
      • Josip Broz Tito
      • new governments in the satellite states were similar to the Soviet Union
      • communists gave priority to the military and heavy industry; paid less attention to consumer goods
      • socialist planned economies led to production problems and shortages of daily neccities
      • art and culture from the west cencored
    • The 1960s East Bloc Countries
      • new economic mechanism
      • communist regimes slowly started to grant civil freedoms in the 60s
      • Brezhnev Doctrine
      • East Bloc countries lagged behind western countries
    • Gorbachev's Reforms in the Soviet Union
      • communist elite seemed safe from challenges
      • Gorbachev realized that the Soviet Union couldn't keep up with the West
      • Perestrokia
      • Glasnost
      • 1st year in office: attacked corruption
      • brought reforms to foreign affairs
    • The Revolutions of 1989
      • Gorbachev's plans for reforming the Soviet Union led to revolutions in the East Bloc
      • people living in the East Bloc gained political freedom after 40 years
      • anti communist revolution spread throughout the East Bloc
      • US has become the last standing world superpower
    • The Collapse of Communism in the East Bloc
      • East Bloc states did not fully recover from economic downfall of the 70s
      • revolt seemed inevitbale
      • Poland
      • Hungary
      • Berlin Wall came down in November 1989
      • Romania
      • The Velvet Revolution
    • German Unification and the End of the Cold War
      • Easter Germans wanted to find a "third way" between communism/ socialism and democracy/ capitalism
      • Summer 1990- international aspect of German unification was successful
      • Helmut Kohl created a 10-point plan for unifying Germany
      • October 1990- East and West Germany unified under West Germany's laws
      • The Paris Accord- a general peace treaty that ended WWII and the Cold War
      • September 1991- Bush and Gorbachev cancelled around-the-clock bombers for nuclear missiles
    • The Disintegration of the Soviet Union
      • Lithuania- elected nationalist president who later declared them independent
      • Gorbachev wanted to ratify a new constitution that would give the congress more power
      • Yeltsin declared Russia independent after an anti communist revolution swept over the Soviet Union
      • Commonwealth of the Indpendent States- loose confederation of former Soviet Union states
    • Reshaping Russia and the Former East Bloc
      • liberal democratic governments were established in former East Bloc countries
      • Russia returned to authoritarian traditions in early 2000s
    • Economic Shock Therapy in Russia
      • Yeltsin- democratic president of Russia who wanted to prevent communism/ right economy
      • thought shock therapy would revive economy
      • Russian economy crashed again in 1998 (after Asia's financial crisis)
      • Yeltsin became unpopular-- was only supported by Oligarchs
    • De-colonization and the Global Cold War
      • colonized people demanded self-determination, racial equality, and personal dignity
      • some gained freedom peacefully and without bloodshed, but others were violent
      • before 1939 Europeans saw themselves as superior but WWII showed them otherwise
      • US and Soviet Union were promising different kinds of freedom
      • Soviets and Chinese encourage communist revolutions in Asia
      • nonalignment- policy of postcolonial governments to remain neutral in the Cold War and play the US and USSR for what they want
    • The Struggle for Power in Asia
      • first major fight for independence after WWII was in the Dutch Indies (Indonesia)
      • French Indochina (Vietnam, Cambodia, Laos)
      • India
      • Muslims and Hindus in India (Pakistan)
      • Chinese nationalism became developed under Marxist- Leninist ideology
    • Independence in the Middle East
      • French League of Nations in Syria and Lebanon collapsed during WWII
      • Saudi Arabia and Transjordan gained independence from Britain
      • Israel founded in 1948
      • Nasser became president of Egypt in 1954
    • De-colonization in Africa
      • most of de-colonization below the Sahara went smoothly
      • Apartheid- an exploitative system of racial segregation enforced by law
      • Belgium gave up Congo
      • Algeria gained independence from France

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